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slide1
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Hooked


@nireyal

productscanprofoundly changeourbehaviors
Productscanprofoundly


CHANGEOURBEHAVIORS.

100 sofmillionsof users
100’sofmillionsof

users…

…and100’sof

millionsofdollars.

slide4
?

S

N

R

T E

PA T

iwrotethis
Iwrotethis…

…moreat:

NirAndFar.com

whenwe feelanitch weseekto scratchit
WhenweFEELANITCH

weseektoSCRATCHIT.

thebrainassociatesbehaviorsthat provideasolution
Thebrainassociatesbehaviorsthat


PROVIDEASOLUTION


towhateverproblemitencounters.

the solutionto ourdiscomfort isfoundintheproduct
TheSOLUTIONTO


OURDISCOMFORT


isfoundintheproduct’suse.

imagesofchocolatebringboth pleasureandstressto
Imagesofchocolatebringboth

pleasureandstressto“cravers.”

Source:Rodriguezetal2005

stressisaprecondition foraddiction
STRESSisaprecondition

foraddiction.

Source:HeiligandKoob2007

wearenotdesigningforaddiction notmustbeingraphic
Wearenotdesigningforaddiction

NOTmustbeingraphic

Donotdesignforaddiction.

hab it
hab·it

ABEHAVIORDONEWITH

LITTLEORNO


CONSCIOUS

THOUGHT

1 frequency
1.FREQUENCY

Source:Judah,G;Gardner,B;Aunger,R;2013

2 attitudechange
2.ATTITUDECHANGE

Source:Judah,G;Gardner,B;Aunger,R;2013

harnessing habits canbe
Harnessing

HABITS

canbe

VERYGOOD

FORBUSINESS.

creatingconsumerhabitsdrives highercustomer
Creatingconsumerhabitsdrives


HIGHERCUSTOMER

LIFETIMEVALUE(CLTV).

creatingconsumerhabitsgivescompanies
Creatingconsumerhabitsgivescompanies

GREATERFLEXIBILITY

TOINCREASEPRICES.

creatingconsumerhabits supercharges growth
Creatingconsumerhabits


SUPERCHARGES

GROWTH.

creatingconsumerhabits
Creatingconsumerhabits

INCREASESDEFENSIBILITY.

butifyourbusinessrequires unprompteduserengagement
Butifyourbusinessrequires

“unprompteduserengagement,”

adesignpatterntohelp formbetterproduct hypotheses
Adesignpatterntohelp


FORMBETTERPRODUCT

HYPOTHESES.

buildingis expensive
BUILDINGIS

EXPENSIVE

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The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$

connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$

slide31
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with%enough%%

FREQUENCY%%

to%%

FORM+A+HABIT.+

now it is
NOW IT IS

YOUR TURN

getintogroupsof2or3
❑ Getintogroupsof2or3.

❑ Describeyourproductor

service.

❑ Pickoneproductwithone

user.

whydoesyourbusiness requireahabit
❑ Whydoesyourbusiness

requireahabit?

❑ Whatproblemareusers

comingtosolve?

❑ Howdotheycurrently

solvetheproblemand

whydoesitneedanew

solution?

whatactiondoyouwant tomakeintoahabit
❑ Whatactiondoyouwant

tomakeintoahabit?

❑ Howfrequentlydoyou

expectuserstoengage?

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A"Hook"has"4"parts:"

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triggerscomeintwoflavors external internal
Triggerscomeintwoflavors:


EXTERNAL&


INTERNAL

externaltriggers theinformationforwhattodonext
EXTERNALTRIGGERS


Theinformationforwhattodonext

iswithinthetrigger.

Billboards

SO

DA

internaltriggers
INTERNALTRIGGERS


Theinformationforwhattodonextisinformed


throughanassociationintheuser’smemory.

negativeemotionsare powerfulinternaltriggers
NegativeemotionsarePOWERFULINTERNALTRIGGERS.

lonesome

indecisive

tense

confused

discouraged

powerless

dissatisfied

fatigued

fearofloss

inferior

bored

lost

peoplewhoare depressedcheckemailmoreoften
PeoplewhoareDEPRESSEDCHECKEMAILMOREOFTEN.

Source: Kotikalapudi et al 2012

it all starts with a narrative if you want
IT#ALL#STARTS#WITH#A#

NARRATIVE.!

“(If)!you!want!to!build!a!product!

that!is!relevant!to!folks,!you!need!

to!put!yourself!in!their!shoes!and!

you!need!to!write!a!story!from!

their!side.”!

.#Jack#Dorsey#

instantcakemixwas amarketingfailure
INSTANTCAKEMIXWAS

AMARKETINGFAILURE.

BettyCrockerassumedthat

customerswanted

conveniencebut“Justadd

water”didnotsell.

1952

Source:“FindingBettyCrocker”,SusanMarks

whydowemakecake
WHYDOWEMAKECAKE?


togiveandreceivelovefrompeoplewecareabout.

solvesthepain
solvesthepain

oflosingthemoment.

butis alsoasocialnetwork
Butis

alsoasocialnetwork.

Lonely

Stressed

Urge to

preserve

Curious

Insecurity

Bored

your your turn turn to to build a build
YOUR

YOUR

TURN

TURN

TO

TO

BUILD A

BUILD A

NARRATIVE

NARRATIVE

buildyournarrative
BUILDYOURNARRATIVE

❑ Whoistheuser?

❑ Whataretheydoing

immediatelybeforeyour

intendedhabit?

internaltriggers 1
INTERNALTRIGGERS

❑ Comeupwith3internal

triggerhypotheses

(emotions,routines,

situations…)

❑ Whichinternaltrigger

occursmostoften?

❑ Everytime_______,

theuser________.

externaltriggers whereandwhencanyou
EXTERNALTRIGGERS

❑ Whereandwhencanyou

insertyourexternal

triggers?

❑ Howcanyoubeinfront

oftheuserwhenher

internaltriggerfires?

❑ Thinkof3“rationalideas”

and3“crazyideas.”

hypothesishomework
HYPOTHESISHOMEWORK

❑ Areyourassumptions

correct?

❑ Isyournarrativereally

happening?

❑ “Getoutofthebuilding.”

–SteveBlank

❑ Testyourbiggest

assumptionsfirstand

cheaply.

take a break
Take a break

“Hook”byBluesTraveler

slide62
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slide63
The

SIMPLESTBEHAVIOR

inanticipationofareward.

accordingtobjfogg foranybehaviortooccur we need
AccordingtoBJFogg,foranybehaviortooccur,we

needMOTIVATION,ABILITY,andaTRIGGER

b=m+a+t

theenergyforaction mo ti va tion
“THEENERGYFORACTION”

mo·ti·va·tion

-Edward Deci

therearesixfactors thatcanincrease motivation
THEREARESIXFACTORS

THATCANINCREASE

MOTIVATION.

Seeking Pleasure


Avoiding Pain


Seeking Hope


Avoiding Fear


Seeking Acceptance


Avoiding Rejection

Source:Dr.BJFogg,StanfordUniversity

slide73

SeekingACCEPTANCE

ability the capacity to do a particular action
ABILITY

the capacity to do

a particular action

slide75
Time% $

Money%

Physical%effort%

Six$factors$can$increase$or$decrease$ability.

%

Brain%cycles%

Social%deviance%

Non8rou:ne%

Source:%Dr.%BJ%Fogg,%Stanford%University%

levelofmotivationandability
Levelofmotivationandability

determinesifactionwilloccur.

TRIGGER

SUCCEEDS

MOTIVATION

TRIGGER

FAILS

ABILITY

FoggBehaviorModel

Source:Dr.BJFogg,StanfordUniversity

butyou lloften getthesameresults
…butyou’lloften

getthesameresults.

throughtheyears
throughtheyears

2010

2011

2012

TODAY

2009

throughtheyears 1
throughtheyears

2009

2011

2012

TODAY

2010

throughtheyears 2
throughtheyears

2009

2010

2011

2012

TODAY

your your turn turn to to simplify simplify
YOUR

YOUR

TURN

TURN

TO

TO

SIMPLIFY

SIMPLIFY

THE ACTION

THE ACTION

usersareonapathtosolvingaproblem
Usersareonapathtosolvingaproblem.

ProductInterface

InternalTrigger

Reward/PainAlleviation

userstakeactiontoalleviatepain
userstakeactiontoalleviatepain.

ProductInterface

1.

OpenApp

2.

Log-in(sometimes)

3.

Scroll&Read

InternalTrigger

Reward/PainAlleviation

mapthepath userstaketo scratchtheiritch
Mapthepath

userstaketo

scratchtheiritch.

findthe scarcestresource
Findthe“scarcestresource”

❑ Reviewyourflow.Whereis

theactionmostdifficult?

❑ Whichresourceislacking?

•Money

•Physicaleffort

•Braincycles(tooconfusing)

•Socialdeviance(outsidenorm)

•Non-routine(toonew)

•Time

❑ Whatare3testablewaysto

maketheactioneasier?

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itallstartswiththe
Itallstartswiththe

NUCLEUS

ACCUMBENS

studiedbyOlds&Milner.

Source:OldsandMilner,1945

thenucleusaccumbens isactivatedwhen
Thenucleusaccumbens


isactivatedwhen


wecrave.

slide91
Were

Olds & Milner

stimulating

pleasure?

Not exactly.

ourrewardsystemactivates withanticipation
Ourrewardsystemactivates


withanticipation

Source:Knutsonetal2001

andcalmswhen wegetwhatwewant
…andcalmswhen


wegetwhatwewant.

Source:Knutsonetal2001

that sthe itch weseekto scratch
That’stheITCH

weseektoSCRATCH.

theunknown
THEUNKNOWN

ISFASCINATING.

Variabilitycausesusto

focusandengage

thenucleusaccumbensis stimulatedbyvariability
Thenucleusaccumbensis

stimulatedbyvariability.

3typesofvariablerewards
3typesofVARIABLEREWARDS

HUNT

TRIBE

SELF

Habit-formingtechuses1ORMORE

searchfor socialrewards
SEARCHFOR

SOCIALREWARDS

TRIBE

empathetic joy
empathetic joy

competition

partnership

searchfor resources
SEARCHFOR

RESOURCES

HUNT

hunt forvariable information rewards
Hunt


forvariable

information


rewards.

hunterson
Hunterson

scrollpages.

searchfor
SEARCHFOR

SELF-ACHIEVEMENT

SELF

inboxortaskmanagementreflects
Inboxortaskmanagementreflects


CONSISTENCYandCOMPLETION.

warning variablerewardsarenotafreepass
WARNING

Variablerewardsarenotafreepass.


Yourproductstillmustaddresstheitch.

autonomyis apre requisite
AUTONOMYIS

APRE-REQUISITE.

Doyourusersfeelincontrol?

Source:DeciandRyanonSelf-DeterminationTheory

your your turn turn to to reward reward your
YOUR

YOUR

TURN

TURN

TO

TO

REWARD

REWARD

YOUR USERS

YOUR USERS

reviewyourflow isthe rewardfulfilling yetleaves
❑ Reviewyourflow.Isthe

rewardfulfilling,yetleaves

theuserwantingmore?

❑ Brainstorm3waysusers

searchforvariablereward.

•RewardsoftheTribe-gratification

fromothers.

•RewardsoftheHunt-things,

moneyorinformation.

•RewardsoftheSelf-mastery,

completion,competency,

consistency.

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users invest forfuturebenefits
Users“invest”forfuturebenefits.

Emotional

Commitment

Money

Personal

Data

Social

Capital

Effort

Time

investments increase the likelihood of the next
Investments increase the

likelihood of the next pass

through the Hook in 


TWO


ways.

investments loadthe nexttrigger ofthehook
INVESTMENTS

LOADTHE

NEXTTRIGGER

OFTHEHOOK.

1.

isanopen invitationforan externaltriggerto
isanopen

invitationforan

externaltriggerto

bereturned.

investmentsstorevalue improvingtheproductwithuse
INVESTMENTSSTOREVALUE,


improvingtheproductwithuse.

2.

your your turn turn to to get users get users
YOUR

YOUR

TURN

TURN

TO

TO

GET USERS

GET USERS

TO INVEST

TO INVEST

reviewyourflow what bitofwork areyourusers
❑ Reviewyourflow.What

“bitofwork”areyourusers

doingtoincreasethe

likelihoodofreturning?

❑ Brainstorm3waystoadd

smallinvestmentsintoyour

userexperienceto:

•LoadtheNextTrigger

•StoreValue

•Content,Data,Followers,

Reputation

5min

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The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$

connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$

eachpassthroughthehookhelps
EachpassthroughtheHookhelps


SHAPEUSERPREFERENCESANDATTITUDES.

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With%enough%frequency,%

A"HABIT"IS"FORMED."

thehookcanvas
TheHOOKCanvas

1.Whatinternaltriggeris

theproductaddressing?

2.Whatexternaltrigger

getstheusertotheproduct?

4.Isthereward

fulfilling,yetleavesthe

userwantingmore?

5.What“bitofwork”isdone

toincreasethelikelihoodof

returning?

3.Whatisthesimplest

behaviorinanticipation

ofreward?

themorality ofmanipulation
THEMORALITY

OFMANIPULATION

designing habit forming productsisaform
Designing


habit-forming

productsisaform

ofmanipulation.

quitepossibly the cigaretteof thiscentury
Quitepossibly,the


“CIGARETTEOF


THISCENTURY.”


- Ian Bogust

slide145
What

RESPONSIBILITY

dowehavewhen

changinguserbehavior?

theworldisfullofproblemstofix
THEWORLDISFULLOFPROBLEMSTOFIX.

Helpothersfindmeaning.Engagethemin

somethingimportant.

build the change
Buildthe

CHANGE

youwanttoseein

THEWORLD.

ad