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slide1

k

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Hooked


@nireyal

productscanprofoundly changeourbehaviors

Productscanprofoundly


CHANGEOURBEHAVIORS.

100 sofmillionsof users

100’sofmillionsof

users…

…and100’sof

millionsofdollars.

slide4

?

S

N

R

T E

PA T

iwrotethis

Iwrotethis…

…moreat:

NirAndFar.com

whenwe feelanitch weseekto scratchit

WhenweFEELANITCH

weseektoSCRATCHIT.

thebrainassociatesbehaviorsthat provideasolution

Thebrainassociatesbehaviorsthat


PROVIDEASOLUTION


towhateverproblemitencounters.

the solutionto ourdiscomfort isfoundintheproduct

TheSOLUTIONTO


OURDISCOMFORT


isfoundintheproduct’suse.

imagesofchocolatebringboth pleasureandstressto

Imagesofchocolatebringboth

pleasureandstressto“cravers.”

Source:Rodriguezetal2005

stressisaprecondition foraddiction

STRESSisaprecondition

foraddiction.

Source:HeiligandKoob2007

wearenotdesigningforaddiction notmustbeingraphic

Wearenotdesigningforaddiction

NOTmustbeingraphic

Donotdesignforaddiction.

hab it

hab·it

ABEHAVIORDONEWITH

LITTLEORNO


CONSCIOUS

THOUGHT

1 frequency

1.FREQUENCY

Source:Judah,G;Gardner,B;Aunger,R;2013

2 attitudechange

2.ATTITUDECHANGE

Source:Judah,G;Gardner,B;Aunger,R;2013

harnessing habits canbe

Harnessing

HABITS

canbe

VERYGOOD

FORBUSINESS.

creatingconsumerhabitsdrives highercustomer

Creatingconsumerhabitsdrives


HIGHERCUSTOMER

LIFETIMEVALUE(CLTV).

creatingconsumerhabitsgivescompanies

Creatingconsumerhabitsgivescompanies

GREATERFLEXIBILITY

TOINCREASEPRICES.

creatingconsumerhabits supercharges growth

Creatingconsumerhabits


SUPERCHARGES

GROWTH.

creatingconsumerhabits

Creatingconsumerhabits

INCREASESDEFENSIBILITY.

butifyourbusinessrequires unprompteduserengagement

Butifyourbusinessrequires

“unprompteduserengagement,”

adesignpatterntohelp formbetterproduct hypotheses

Adesignpatterntohelp


FORMBETTERPRODUCT

HYPOTHESES.

buildingis expensive

BUILDINGIS

EXPENSIVE

slide30

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The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$

connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$

slide31

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with%enough%%

FREQUENCY%%

to%%

FORM+A+HABIT.+

now it is

NOW IT IS

YOUR TURN

getintogroupsof2or3

❑ Getintogroupsof2or3.

❑ Describeyourproductor

service.

❑ Pickoneproductwithone

user.

whydoesyourbusiness requireahabit

❑ Whydoesyourbusiness

requireahabit?

❑ Whatproblemareusers

comingtosolve?

❑ Howdotheycurrently

solvetheproblemand

whydoesitneedanew

solution?

whatactiondoyouwant tomakeintoahabit

❑ Whatactiondoyouwant

tomakeintoahabit?

❑ Howfrequentlydoyou

expectuserstoengage?

slide36

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A"Hook"has"4"parts:"

slide37

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triggerscomeintwoflavors external internal

Triggerscomeintwoflavors:


EXTERNAL&


INTERNAL

externaltriggers theinformationforwhattodonext

EXTERNALTRIGGERS


Theinformationforwhattodonext

iswithinthetrigger.

Billboards

SO

DA

internaltriggers

INTERNALTRIGGERS


Theinformationforwhattodonextisinformed


throughanassociationintheuser’smemory.

negativeemotionsare powerfulinternaltriggers

NegativeemotionsarePOWERFULINTERNALTRIGGERS.

lonesome

indecisive

tense

confused

discouraged

powerless

dissatisfied

fatigued

fearofloss

inferior

bored

lost

peoplewhoare depressedcheckemailmoreoften

PeoplewhoareDEPRESSEDCHECKEMAILMOREOFTEN.

Source: Kotikalapudi et al 2012

it all starts with a narrative if you want

IT#ALL#STARTS#WITH#A#

NARRATIVE.!

“(If)!you!want!to!build!a!product!

that!is!relevant!to!folks,!you!need!

to!put!yourself!in!their!shoes!and!

you!need!to!write!a!story!from!

their!side.”!

.#Jack#Dorsey#

instantcakemixwas amarketingfailure

INSTANTCAKEMIXWAS

AMARKETINGFAILURE.

BettyCrockerassumedthat

customerswanted

conveniencebut“Justadd

water”didnotsell.

1952

Source:“FindingBettyCrocker”,SusanMarks

whydowemakecake

WHYDOWEMAKECAKE?


togiveandreceivelovefrompeoplewecareabout.

solvesthepain

solvesthepain

oflosingthemoment.

butis alsoasocialnetwork

Butis

alsoasocialnetwork.

Lonely

Stressed

Urge to

preserve

Curious

Insecurity

Bored

your your turn turn to to build a build

YOUR

YOUR

TURN

TURN

TO

TO

BUILD A

BUILD A

NARRATIVE

NARRATIVE

buildyournarrative

BUILDYOURNARRATIVE

❑ Whoistheuser?

❑ Whataretheydoing

immediatelybeforeyour

intendedhabit?

internaltriggers 1

INTERNALTRIGGERS

❑ Comeupwith3internal

triggerhypotheses

(emotions,routines,

situations…)

❑ Whichinternaltrigger

occursmostoften?

❑ Everytime_______,

theuser________.

externaltriggers whereandwhencanyou

EXTERNALTRIGGERS

❑ Whereandwhencanyou

insertyourexternal

triggers?

❑ Howcanyoubeinfront

oftheuserwhenher

internaltriggerfires?

❑ Thinkof3“rationalideas”

and3“crazyideas.”

hypothesishomework

HYPOTHESISHOMEWORK

❑ Areyourassumptions

correct?

❑ Isyournarrativereally

happening?

❑ “Getoutofthebuilding.”

–SteveBlank

❑ Testyourbiggest

assumptionsfirstand

cheaply.

take a break

Take a break

“Hook”byBluesTraveler

slide62

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slide63

The

SIMPLESTBEHAVIOR

inanticipationofareward.

accordingtobjfogg foranybehaviortooccur we need

AccordingtoBJFogg,foranybehaviortooccur,we

needMOTIVATION,ABILITY,andaTRIGGER

b=m+a+t

theenergyforaction mo ti va tion

“THEENERGYFORACTION”

mo·ti·va·tion

-Edward Deci

therearesixfactors thatcanincrease motivation

THEREARESIXFACTORS

THATCANINCREASE

MOTIVATION.

Seeking Pleasure


Avoiding Pain


Seeking Hope


Avoiding Fear


Seeking Acceptance


Avoiding Rejection

Source:Dr.BJFogg,StanfordUniversity

slide73

SeekingACCEPTANCE

ability the capacity to do a particular action

ABILITY

the capacity to do

a particular action

slide75

Time% $

Money%

Physical%effort%

Six$factors$can$increase$or$decrease$ability.

%

Brain%cycles%

Social%deviance%

Non8rou:ne%

Source:%Dr.%BJ%Fogg,%Stanford%University%

levelofmotivationandability

Levelofmotivationandability

determinesifactionwilloccur.

TRIGGER

SUCCEEDS

MOTIVATION

TRIGGER

FAILS

ABILITY

FoggBehaviorModel

Source:Dr.BJFogg,StanfordUniversity

butyou lloften getthesameresults

…butyou’lloften

getthesameresults.

throughtheyears

throughtheyears

2010

2011

2012

TODAY

2009

throughtheyears 1

throughtheyears

2009

2011

2012

TODAY

2010

throughtheyears 2

throughtheyears

2009

2010

2011

2012

TODAY

your your turn turn to to simplify simplify

YOUR

YOUR

TURN

TURN

TO

TO

SIMPLIFY

SIMPLIFY

THE ACTION

THE ACTION

usersareonapathtosolvingaproblem

Usersareonapathtosolvingaproblem.

ProductInterface

InternalTrigger

Reward/PainAlleviation

userstakeactiontoalleviatepain

userstakeactiontoalleviatepain.

ProductInterface

1.

OpenApp

2.

Log-in(sometimes)

3.

Scroll&Read

InternalTrigger

Reward/PainAlleviation

mapthepath userstaketo scratchtheiritch

Mapthepath

userstaketo

scratchtheiritch.

findthe scarcestresource

Findthe“scarcestresource”

❑ Reviewyourflow.Whereis

theactionmostdifficult?

❑ Whichresourceislacking?

•Money

•Physicaleffort

•Braincycles(tooconfusing)

•Socialdeviance(outsidenorm)

•Non-routine(toonew)

•Time

❑ Whatare3testablewaysto

maketheactioneasier?

slide88

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itallstartswiththe

Itallstartswiththe

NUCLEUS

ACCUMBENS

studiedbyOlds&Milner.

Source:OldsandMilner,1945

thenucleusaccumbens isactivatedwhen

Thenucleusaccumbens


isactivatedwhen


wecrave.

slide91

Were

Olds & Milner

stimulating

pleasure?

Not exactly.

ourrewardsystemactivates withanticipation

Ourrewardsystemactivates


withanticipation

Source:Knutsonetal2001

andcalmswhen wegetwhatwewant

…andcalmswhen


wegetwhatwewant.

Source:Knutsonetal2001

that sthe itch weseekto scratch

That’stheITCH

weseektoSCRATCH.

theunknown

THEUNKNOWN

ISFASCINATING.

Variabilitycausesusto

focusandengage

thenucleusaccumbensis stimulatedbyvariability

Thenucleusaccumbensis

stimulatedbyvariability.

3typesofvariablerewards

3typesofVARIABLEREWARDS

HUNT

TRIBE

SELF

Habit-formingtechuses1ORMORE

searchfor socialrewards

SEARCHFOR

SOCIALREWARDS

TRIBE

empathetic joy

empathetic joy

competition

partnership

searchfor resources

SEARCHFOR

RESOURCES

HUNT

hunt forvariable information rewards

Hunt


forvariable

information


rewards.

hunterson

Hunterson

scrollpages.

searchfor

SEARCHFOR

SELF-ACHIEVEMENT

SELF

inboxortaskmanagementreflects

Inboxortaskmanagementreflects


CONSISTENCYandCOMPLETION.

warning variablerewardsarenotafreepass

WARNING

Variablerewardsarenotafreepass.


Yourproductstillmustaddresstheitch.

autonomyis apre requisite

AUTONOMYIS

APRE-REQUISITE.

Doyourusersfeelincontrol?

Source:DeciandRyanonSelf-DeterminationTheory

your your turn turn to to reward reward your

YOUR

YOUR

TURN

TURN

TO

TO

REWARD

REWARD

YOUR USERS

YOUR USERS

reviewyourflow isthe rewardfulfilling yetleaves

❑ Reviewyourflow.Isthe

rewardfulfilling,yetleaves

theuserwantingmore?

❑ Brainstorm3waysusers

searchforvariablereward.

•RewardsoftheTribe-gratification

fromothers.

•RewardsoftheHunt-things,

moneyorinformation.

•RewardsoftheSelf-mastery,

completion,competency,

consistency.

slide123

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users invest forfuturebenefits

Users“invest”forfuturebenefits.

Emotional

Commitment

Money

Personal

Data

Social

Capital

Effort

Time

investments increase the likelihood of the next

Investments increase the

likelihood of the next pass

through the Hook in 


TWO


ways.

investments loadthe nexttrigger ofthehook

INVESTMENTS

LOADTHE

NEXTTRIGGER

OFTHEHOOK.

1.

isanopen invitationforan externaltriggerto

isanopen

invitationforan

externaltriggerto

bereturned.

investmentsstorevalue improvingtheproductwithuse

INVESTMENTSSTOREVALUE,


improvingtheproductwithuse.

2.

your your turn turn to to get users get users

YOUR

YOUR

TURN

TURN

TO

TO

GET USERS

GET USERS

TO INVEST

TO INVEST

reviewyourflow what bitofwork areyourusers

❑ Reviewyourflow.What

“bitofwork”areyourusers

doingtoincreasethe

likelihoodofreturning?

❑ Brainstorm3waystoadd

smallinvestmentsintoyour

userexperienceto:

•LoadtheNextTrigger

•StoreValue

•Content,Data,Followers,

Reputation

5min

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The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$

connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$

eachpassthroughthehookhelps

EachpassthroughtheHookhelps


SHAPEUSERPREFERENCESANDATTITUDES.

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With%enough%frequency,%

A"HABIT"IS"FORMED."

thehookcanvas

TheHOOKCanvas

1.Whatinternaltriggeris

theproductaddressing?

2.Whatexternaltrigger

getstheusertotheproduct?

4.Isthereward

fulfilling,yetleavesthe

userwantingmore?

5.What“bitofwork”isdone

toincreasethelikelihoodof

returning?

3.Whatisthesimplest

behaviorinanticipation

ofreward?

themorality ofmanipulation

THEMORALITY

OFMANIPULATION

designing habit forming productsisaform

Designing


habit-forming

productsisaform

ofmanipulation.

quitepossibly the cigaretteof thiscentury

Quitepossibly,the


“CIGARETTEOF


THISCENTURY.”


- Ian Bogust

slide145

What

RESPONSIBILITY

dowehavewhen

changinguserbehavior?

theworldisfullofproblemstofix

THEWORLDISFULLOFPROBLEMSTOFIX.

Helpothersfindmeaning.Engagethemin

somethingimportant.

build the change

Buildthe

CHANGE

youwanttoseein

THEWORLD.