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Immunity and Infection. Chapter 17. The Chain of Infection. Links in the Chain Transmitted through a chain (six links) Pathogen - disease causing microorganism Reservoir - natural environment of the pathogen: Person, animal, or environmental component Portal of Exit Means of transmission

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The chain of infection
The Chain of Infection

  • Links in the Chain

    • Transmitted through a chain (six links)

      • Pathogen - disease causing microorganism

      • Reservoir - natural environment of the pathogen: Person, animal, or environmental component

      • Portal of Exit

      • Means of transmission

        • Direct transmission

        • Indirect transmission

          • Vectors – carrier of the pathogen from one host to another

      • Portal of entry

        • Penetration of the skin

        • Inhalation through mouth or nose

        • Ingestion

      • New host

    • Breaking the Chain

Immunity and infection


Body s defense system
Body’s Defense System

  • Physical and Chemical barriers

    • Skin, mucous membranes, respiratory tract

  • The Immune System

    • Immunological Defenders

      • Neutrophils

      • Macrophages – “big eaters”

      • Natural killer cells

      • Dendritic cells – eat pathogens and activate lymphocytes

      • Lymphocytes

        • T-cells

          • Helper, Killer, and Suppressor

        • B-cells

          • Antibodies

        • Memory T and B cells


The inflammatory response
The Inflammatory Response

  • Histamine.

    • Dilation of blood vessels, heat, redness, and swelling.

  • The immune response

    • Phase 1 – Dendritic cells are drawn to the site

    • Phase 2 – Helper T cells multiply

      • Production of Killer T and B cells

      • Cytokines – chemical messengers

    • Phase 3 – Killer T cells strike

      • Cell-mediated immune

      • Antibody-mediated immune response

    • Phase 4 – Last Phase –

      • Suppressor T-cells

      • Slow down activity


  • Immunity
    Immunity

    • An infected person will never get the same illness again.

    • Lymphocytes create amplification of the immune response are reserved by memory T and B cells

    • Symptoms and contagion

      • Incubation – viruses are multiplying in the body or when bacteria are actively multiplying

        • Will not feel symptoms until the second or third phase of the immune response cycle

      • Prodromal period – the infected host has acquired immunity


    Immunization
    Immunization

    • The process of ‘priming’ the body to remember an encounter with a specific antigen.

    • Types of vaccines

      • VACCINE- Introduction of a killed or weakened pathogen to stimulate the body to produce antibodies.

      • ACTIVE IMMUNITY - person produces his or her own antibodies to the microorganism.

      • PASSIVE IMMUNITY- Injection of antibodies produced by other human beings or animals.

      • ACQUIRED IMMUNITY-The ability of a memory lymphocytes to remember a previous infection. (chicken pox).


    Immunization issues
    Immunization Issues

    • Vaccine shortages in the U.S.

    • Vaccine safety


    Allergy the body s defense system gone haywire
    Allergy: The Body’s Defense System Gone Haywire

    • The Body’s Defense System Gone Haywire

      • Allergies

      • Allergens

        • Pollen, Animal Dander, Dust mites and cockroaches, Molds, Food, Insects

      • The Allergic response

        • Immunoglobulin (IgE)

        • Anaphylaxis


    Dealing with allergies
    Dealing With Allergies

    • Avoidance

    • Medication

    • Immunotherapy “allergy shots


    Pathogens and disease
    Pathogens and Disease

    • Bacterium – Microscopic single celled organism

      • Pneumonia

      • Meningitis

      • Strep Throat and other streptococcal infections

      • Toxic shock and other staphylococcal

      • Tuberculosis

      • Tickborne infections

      • Ulcers

      • Other Bacterial infections

        • Tetanus

        • Pertussis

        • Urinary tract infections


    Antibiotic treatment
    Antibiotic Treatment

    • Actions of Antibiotics

    • Antibiotic resistance

    • Proper antibiotics usage

      • Don’t take an antibiotic every time you are sick

      • Use antibiotics as directed

      • Never take an antibiotic without an prescription


    Type of pathogens
    Type of Pathogens

    • Viruses – (parasites – take what they need)

    • Most common contagious disease

      • Common Cold

      • Influenza

      • Measles, Mumps and Rubella

      • Chickenpox, Cold Sores, and other herpes-virus infections

        • Varicella-zoster virus

        • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2

        • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

      • Viral encephalitis

      • Viral hepatitis

      • Poliomyelitis

      • Rabies

      • Human papillomavirus (HPV)

    • Treatment


    Types of pathogens
    Types of Pathogens

    • Fungi –

      • Primitive plant – Yeast infections, athletes foot, jock itch, and ringworm

      • Candida albicans

    • Protozoan –

      • Microscopic single-celled animal – Malaria, African sleeping sickness, Giardiasis, Tricomonias, Trypanosomiasis, and Amoebic dysentary.

    • Parasitic worm –

      • Largest organism that can enter the body – Tapeworm, Hookworm, and Pinworm.

    • Prions –

      • Fetal degeneration disorders of the CNS, linked to “proteinaceous infectious particles.

      • Lack DNA and RNA

      • Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs)

        • Spongelike holes in the brain

        • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease – Human

          • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease


    Emerging infectious diseases
    Emerging Infectious Diseases

    • Selected Infections of concern

      • West Nile virus

      • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

      • Rotavirus

      • Escherichia coli 0157:H7

      • Hantavirus

      • Ebola


    Factors contributing to emerging infections
    Factors Contributing to Emerging Infections

    • Drug Resistance

    • Poverty

    • Breakdown of public health measures

    • Environmental changes

    • Travel and Commerce

    • Mass food production and distribution

    • Human behaviors

    • Bioterrorism


    Other immune disorders cancer and autoimmune diseases
    Other Immune Disorders: Cancer and Autoimmune Diseases

    • If the immune system breaks down

      • Getting older

      • HIV infection

      • Chemotherapy

  • Autoimmune diseases

    • Rheumatoid arthritis

    • Systemic lupus erythmatosus


  • Support your immune system
    Support Your Immune System

    How to support your immune system

    General guidelines

    Plenty of clean water

    Avoid contact with vermin

    Practice safe sex

    Do not use Injectable drugs

    Vaccinations

    Controlling Stress

    • Balanced diet

    • Enough sleep

    • Exercise

    • Don’t smoke

    • Moderation of alcohol

    • Wash your hands

    • Avoid contact with contagious people


    Immunity and infection1

    Chapter 17

    Immunity and Infection


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