Infection and Immunity The Skin as an Indicator of Health and Wellness
What can the skin tell us? • A lot! • The appearance of a person’s skin can be the easiest way determine that disease is present • Many attributes can be assessed to determine health, including: • Colour • Surface lesions • Burns • Sun exposure
Colour • Individual normal skin colour is determined by pigment called MELANIN • Darker people have more melanin • Exposure to UV rays (sun) causes release of more melanin • Commonly referred to as????
Discoloration • Pallor • Paleness of the skin caused by decreased blood flow • Easy to see in lips and nail beds • Flushing • Abnormal redness of the skin • Usually a sign of fever • Typically seen in face/neck region
Discoloration • Cyanosis • Lack of oxygen in the blood leads to a bluish colour of the skin • Jaundice • Yellowish discoloration of the skin caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood • Bilirubin is a product of hemoglobin breakdown
Discoloration • True or false? • Excessive intake of carrots can turn you orange. • TRUE. Carrots contain the orange pigment CAROTENE • Too much carotene can result in CAROTENEMIA
Lesions • Lesion means wound or tissue damage • Two categories: • Surface lesions – macules, papules, vasicles, pustules • Deep lesions – excoriations, lacerations, ulcers, fissures
Surface Lesions • Macule • Spots that not raised or depressed • Freckles • Measles
Surface Lesions • Papule • Firm, raised areas • Chickenpox, pimple
Surface Lesions • Vesicle • Blisters • Papule that has filled with fluid
Surface Lesions • Pustule • Blisters, shingles • Papule that has filled with fluid
Deep Lesions • Excoriation • Skin has been worn away due to friction • Fancy word for a scratch, road rash, etc
Deep Lesions • Laceration • Tearing of the skin, rough edged wound
Deep Lesions • Ulcer • Crater shaped sore which results in death of surrounding tissue • Caused by lack of circulation • Peptic (stomach) ulcers usually caused by bacterial infection which causes an increase in acid secretion • Increased acid erodes mucous lining, ulcer develops
Burns • Burns are classified in to one of three categories based on depth of damage: • First degree • Second degree • Third degree
Burns • First degree • Only epidermis is damaged (outermost layer) • Skin is red, painful • Can be treated with cold compress or water • Most sunburns are 1st degree, curling iron accidents…..
Burns • Second degree • Penetrates the deeper layer (dermis) • Usually has blistering • Severe sunburn, boiling water
Burns • Third degree • Called “full thickness burn” • Penetrates all three layers of the skin • Damages muscle, tendons, bone
Sun Exposure • Exposure to UV rays damages the skin • Tanning results in increased melanin = more pigment (colour) = darker skin • Continued exposure to the sun’s rays can lead to cancer, damaged DNA, and rapid skin aging • Stay safe! • Try to avoid the sun’s most intense radiation between 10am and 4pm • Always wear SPF • The higher the SPF, the better protection you receive • Reapply often, especially after swimming or sweating • Wear a hat • Summer or Winter, protect your skin!
Skin Cancer • Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form and accounts for 90% of all skin cancers. • It starts in the basal cells at the bottom of the epidermis and is caused by long-term exposure to sunlight. • It is the most easily treated.
Skin Cancer • Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common type. It starts in the epidermis, eventually penetrating the underlying tissue if not treated. • Easily treated when found early, but in a small percentage of cases, this cancer spreads to other parts of the body.
Skin Cancer • Malignant melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer and is responsible for the most deaths. • Can be cured if it is diagnosed and removed early. • Melanoma starts in moles or other growths on normal skin.
Sun Exposure • Tanning Mom, May 2/12 • Tanning Mom, Sept/12
Sun Exposure UV Photobox