concept 3 biologically significant macromolecules
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Concept 3: Biologically Significant Macromolecules. Biology Standard 3.5 Section 2.3. Key Idea:. Complex macromolecules are made of repeating units. Monomer. Monomer. Monomer. Monomer. Polymer. Organic Molecules. Living things = organic Organic = contains CARBON

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key idea
Key Idea:

Complex macromolecules are made of repeating units.

Monomer

Monomer

Monomer

Monomer

Polymer

organic molecules
Organic Molecules

Living things = organic

Organic = contains CARBON

Carbon is special- can form up to FOUR bonds, and can bond with itself

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

carbon based molecules
Carbon-Based Molecules
  • Many carbon-based molecules are chains of small subunits called monomers.
  • Monomers strung together make up polymers.
carbon based molecules1
Carbon-Based Molecules
  • Most molecules that make up living organisms can be classified as macromolecules.
    • Macro- meaning large, big, or long.
    • Molecule- comprised of multiple atoms.
  • All biologically significant macromolecules can be classified into four categories:
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic acids
carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Main Purpose = ENERGY
    • main source of fuel for cellular respiration
    • Starch = energy storage molecule in plants
    • Glycogen = energy storage molecule in animals
  • Additional Use = Structure/Support
    • Cellulose is used in plant cells (cell wall)
carbohydrates1
Carbohydrates
  • Monomers = monosaccharides (Ex. Glucose)
  • Polymers = polysaccharides (Ex. starch or cellulose)
carbohydrates2
Carbohydrates
  • Carbohydrates are initially synthesized by photosynthesis, or “production by light.”
  • When glucose is consumed, digestion breaks the bonds between the monomer units, making simple sugars that the body can absorb.
  • Eventually, sugars are absorbed by individual cells, and simple sugars are broken down through cellular respiration, resulting in ATP (the body’s energy “currency”).
  • Carbohydrates = 400 cal/g.
lipids
Lipids
  • Main Function = Long Term Energy Storage
  • Other Functions = cushioning organs, insulating the body, hormones, cell membrane
  • Made of glycerols (heads) and fatty acids (tails)

Testosterone

Estrogen

lipids1
Lipids
  • Have more C-H bonds than carbohydrates (more bonds = more energy released when bonds are broken during digestion)
  • This means fats contain more calories than carbohydrates. Lipid = 900 cal/g.
  • Monomer = Fatty Acid
  • Polymer = ex. cholesterol
lipids2
Lipids
  • Saturated (all single bonds)
    • Unhealthy fats
    • Solid at room temperature (butter, dairy)
    • No “gaps” so they pack together tightly and can clog arteries
  • Unsaturated (monounsaturated = one double bond, polyunsaturated = two or more double bonds)
    • Healthier fats
    • Liquid at room temperature (vegetable oil)
    • Double bonds provide “gaps” so these fats slide past each other and do not clog arteries
proteins
Proteins
  • Proteins are involved in almost every function of the human body.
  • When proteins are consumed, they are broken down into monomer units and recycled to suit the organism’s needs.
  • Proteins assemble and fold in different ways – STRUCTURE DETERMINES FUNCTION
proteins1
Proteins
  • Proteins play a number of roles.
    • Transport proteins help move substances like oxygen throughout the body. (Can be embedded in cell membrane)
    • Structural proteins provide support, like keratin that forms hair or fingernails.
    • Hormone proteins carry out signaling around the body, like insulin regulating blood sugar.
    • Contractile proteins help control movement, like in muscle fibers.
    • Enzyme proteins work to accelerate the speed of chemical reactions.
proteins2
Proteins
  • Monomer = amino acids
  • Polymer = polypeptides.
proteins3
Proteins
  • About 20 different amino acids exist, 12 of which the human body can synthesize itself.
  • The others must be consumed from foods like beans, nuts, or meat.
proteins4
Proteins
  • While proteins can be burned for energy, they represent a last resort.
  • Carbohydrates and lipids must both be exhausted before the body will use proteins for energy.
  • Proteins must first be converted to carbohydrates before they can be burned for energy.
  • Proteins = 400 cal/g. (same as carbs)
proteins5
Proteins
  • While the instructions for building proteins are carried on DNA, proteins represent the finished structure, and carry out the functions of life.
  • Sometimes these functions can fail.
    • i.e. Sickle-cell anemia
nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids

Main Purpose = carry genetic information

Polymers = DNA and RNA

Monomer = Nucleotide

Nucleotides are made of a sugar ring, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base (below).

DNA – ATCG

RNA – AUCG

slide20
Outside

Carbohydrates

Picture

Lipids

Picture

Nucleic Acids

Picture

Proteins

Picture

Inside

Subunit = ?

Example = ?

Function in

the body = ?

Subunit = ?

Example = ?

Function in

the body = ?

Subunit = ?

Example = ?

Function in

the body = ?

Subunit = ?

Example = ?

Function in

the body = ?

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