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APES Chapter 1. Environmental Problems, Their Causes and Sustainability “At present we are stealing the future, selling it in the present, and calling it gross domestic product.” Paul Hawken. Basic Terms. Environment - everything that affects living organisms

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APES Chapter 1


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    1. APES Chapter 1 Environmental Problems, Their Causes and Sustainability “At present we are stealing the future, selling it in the present, and calling it gross domestic product.” Paul Hawken

    2. Basic Terms • Environment- everything that affects living organisms • Ecology-science that studies relationships b/t organisms and environment

    3. Human Population • The human race plays a key role in important issues we will be discussing the whole year • Population growth • Resource use • Poverty • Loss of biological diversity • Pollution • Global climate change

    4. Population GrowthLinear • Linear growth- no consistent doubling time with straight line graph • Slow growth

    5. Population GrowthExponential • Exponential growth- quantity increases at a constant rate per unit time • Starts slowly, but grows enormously due to doubling • Addition to population proportional to current size • Larger populations add more people than smaller ones growing at same rate 10% growth of 100,000 people = 10,000 added/yr 10% growth of 1,000,000 people = 100,000 added/yr • These larger populations will then increase their population considerably

    6. Population GrowthExponential • Doubling time- the amount of time it takes a population to double its size. • Exponential growth shows a doubling time • Rule of 70: 70/rate (%) = doubling time 70 divided by the growth rate as a percentage = d.t. • The higher the growth rate, the less time it takes to double • i.e.: growth of populations of people and bacteria, savings accounts, etc.

    7. Let’s See If the Rule of 70 Works! • 10% fixed growth rate….what is doubling time? • 70/10 = 7 year doubling time 100 people to start (.10)(100) =+10 10% growth 110 total # of people at end of year 1 (.10)(110) =+11 121 end of year 2 (.10)(121) =+12 133 end of year 3 (.10)(133) =+13 146 end of year 4 (.10)(146) = +14 160 end of year 5 (.10)(160) = +16 176 end of year 6 (.10)(176) = +17 193 end of year 7—almost doubled!

    8. Population Size vs. Time How would we figure out doubling time from this graph of population growth?

    9. Population Size vs. Time Using the graph you can see that after 7 years population has nearly doubled from 100 to 200

    10. Population Growth • World growth has slowed, but still growing exponentially at an annual growth rate of 1.25%/year • Not much? • Calculate doubling time (70/1.25 = ? years) • 1950-2004 2.56.4 billion (6,400,000,000) • 80,000,000 people added in 2004 • 9100/hour • Growth more rapid than Earth can support • Projected 8-12 billion by end of century, depending on growth rate

    11. 16 15 ? 14 13 12 11 ? 10 9 Billions of people 8 ? 7 6 5 4 3 2 BlackDeath–the Plague 1 0 2-5 million years 8000 6000 4000 2000 2000 2100 Time B.C. A.D. Hunting and gathering Agricultural revolution Industrial revolution

    12. Resource Use • Global economic output is a rough measure of human resource use • More people due to exponential growth and economic growth ↑ resource use

    13. Poverty • 22 fold ↑ in economic growth b/t 1950 and 2004 • 50% of people still trying to survive off < $3/day • To survive they must deplete and degrade environment

    14. Poverty Wealth is becoming increasingly concentrated, with the richest 20% receiving most of the world's income (82.7%).

    15. Loss of Biological Diversity • Premature extinction of species due to habitat degradation • 1%/year • IRREVERSIBLE! • i.e. cutting down forests due to farming and development

    16. Pollution • Pollution- presence of substances at high enough levels to harm living organisms due to: • Natural occurrences= biogenic (volcanic eruptions) • Human activities= anthropogenic (burning fossil fuels, using pesticides, etc.) • Disrupt support systems of organisms

    17. Pollution • Occurs more in urban areas • Can contaminate area where produced or be carried away by wind or water • Factors that determine damage a pollutant can cause: • Concentration • Persistence • Chemical nature • Rate of degradation

    18. Pollution • Point sources- single, identifiable • Cars, smokestacks • Easier to identify and control • Nonpoint sources- dispersed, difficult to identify • Pesticides runoff and spray

    19. Pollution • Prevention (output control) • Stop before it starts • Easier to do • Less expensive to reduce to acceptable levels—regulation • Cleanup • Temporary bandage • Only moves pollution to another site • Expensive

    20. Climate Change • Population growth, resource use, poverty, and loss of biological diversity contribute to climate change • Global warming • Cycle continues

    21. What the Earth Provides UsSun and Earth’s Natural Capital • Capital—baseline wealth used to sustain (i.e. a business or life) • Income--output derived from an investment of capital • All life and economies depend on solar and natural capital.

    22. What the Earth Provides UsSolar Capital/ Energy • Solar capital- direct sunlight and indirect forms of renewable solar energy • Provides 99% of the energy used on earth to sustain life. • Biomass (plant matter) made by plants during photosynthesis using solar energy (i.e. firewood, food, coal) • Hydropower, windpower, and solar power

    23. What the Earth Provides UsNatural Capital • Natural capital- Earth’s resources and ecological services • Air • Water • Soil • Forests • Fishery • Minerals • Natural water and air purification

    24. SOLAR ENERGY RESOURCES Water Energy Air Soil Minerals NATURAL CAPITAL NutrientRecycling PollutionControl Biodiversity Pest & DiseaseControl PopulationControl ClimateControl WasteTreatment SERVICES

    25. What the Earth Provides UsNatural Resources • Resource-anything obtained from environment to satisfy needs OR wants • Food • Water • Shelter • Transportation • Recreation • Natural resources are classified as • Perpetual • Renewable • Nonrenewable • Population and World Resources-24min

    26. Resources Perpetual Nonrenewable Non- metallic minerals Metallic minerals Fossil fuels Winds, tides, flowing water Direct solar energy (iron, copper, aluminum) (clay, sand, phosphates) Renewable Fresh air Fresh water Fertile soil Plants and animals (biodiversity)

    27. What the Earth Provides UsPerpetual Resources • Perpetual resources- renewed continuously • Solar energy • Winds • Flowing water • Resources we cannot drain--yet

    28. What the Earth Provides UsRenewable Resources • Renewable resources- can be renewed or replenished fairly rapidly by natural processes • Fresh air • Fresh water • Plants • Animals • Renewable only as long as we don’t use them quicker than they’re renewed!

    29. What the Earth Provides UsRenewable Resources • Sustainable yield -highest rate that a renewable resource can be used indefinitely w/o reducing its available supply (capital) • LIVE OFF INCOME, NOT CAPITAL • Environmental degradation –degrading environment in any way • i.e. using more than sustainable yield causing resource capital to shrink (degrading environment) • LIVING OFF INCOME AND CAPITAL

    30. What the Earth Provides UsRenewable Resources • “Tragedy of the Commons” • Garrett Hardin, 1968 • Said we are exploiting and degrading publicly owned, common resources. • Need to take no more than sustainable yield.

    31. What the Earth Provides UsRenewable Resources • Possible solutions to the tragedy? • Limit access • Reduce population • Convert free access to private • Private owners environmentally conscientious? • How do you make global resources (oceans and air) private? • Will restricted access foster lack of appreciation for these resources?

    32. What the Earth Provides UsRenewable Resources • Government has laws and treatises that regulate access to commonly owned resources • Hunting licenses • Fishing licenses • National Park rules and regulations • IDEM standards

    33. What the Earth Provides UsRenewable Resources • Ecological footprint- amt of biologically productive land and water needed to supply us with the renewable resources we use and absorb or dispose of our waste • How much of Earth’s natural capital and biological income we use • EVERYTHING we do leaves an effect our environment—our footprint • Renewable resources are being depleted and degraded to support our lifestyles

    34. Total Ecological Footprint (Hectares) Country 3 billion hectares United States 62 million hectares The Netherlands 880 millionhectares India

    35. What the Earth Provides UsRenewable Resources • Per capita- per person • Per capita ecological footprint= total footprint/total population • Humanity’s per capita ecological footprint exceeds Earth’s biological capacity by 15% • We are exceeding sustainable yield and dipping into our capital • i.e. country has 1,000,000 hectares of ecological footprint and 100,000 people: • 1,000,000 ha/ 100,000 people = 10 ha/person

    36. Per Capita Ecological Footprint (Hectares of land per person) Country 9.6 United States 3.8 The Netherlands 0.8 India

    37. 1.4 Humanity’s Ecological Footprint 1.2 1.0 Earth’s Ecological Capacity .8 Number of Earth’s .6 .4 .2 0 1961 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

    38. What the Earth Provides UsNonrenewable Resources • Nonrenewable resources- those we can deplete fixed quantity • Energy resources • Gas, Coal • Metallic mineral resources • Iron, Copper • Nonmetallic mineral resources • Salt, clay • **These nonrenewables are economically depleted when it costs too much to obtain what is left

    39. Resources Perpetual Nonrenewable Non- metallic minerals Metallic minerals Fossil fuels Winds, tides, flowing water Direct solar energy (iron, copper, aluminum) (clay, sand, phosphates) Renewable Fresh air Fresh water Fertile soil Plants and animals (biodiversity)

    40. Area under curve equals the total amount of the resource. Economic depletion (80% used up) Resource production Time

    41. What the Earth Provides UsNonrenewable Resources • Solutions for preserving our nonrenewable resources • Try to find more • Recycle/Reuse • Waste/Use less • Substitute • Wait millions of years

    42. Economic Growth • Economic growth- an ↑ in the capacity of a country to provide people with goods and services needed • Measured by change in country’s: • GDP (Gross Domestic Product)- annual market value in $ of all goods and services produced WITHIN a country • GNP (Gross National Product)- annual market value in $ of all goods and services produced by a country’s businesses THROUGHOUT THE WORLD

    43. Economic Growth • Country’s standard (quality) of living gauged by • Per capita GDP= GDP/country’s population • Per capita GNP = GNP/country’s population • Countries with larger populations have to spread the wealth thinner • Lower per capita GDP lower standard of living • China

    44. Economic Development • Economic development- improving living standards by economic growth • UN classifies countries as economically developed or developing based on Human Development Index (HDI): • Standard of living (per capita GDP) • Life expectancy • Literacy • What country is #1? • HDI List

    45. Economic Development • Developed (MDC): US, Canada, Japan, etc. • High life expectancy, literacy, industrialization and per capita GDP • Developing (LDC): Africa, Asia, Latin America, India • Lower life expectancy, literacy, industrialization and per capita GDP • 97% of world’s projected ↑ in population is expected to take place in these countries

    46. 12 11 10 Worldtotal 9 8 Developing countries 7 Population (billions) 6 5 4 Developed countries 3 2 1 2050 2000 2100 1950 Year

    47. Percent of World’s 19 Population 81 0.1 Populationgrowth rate 1.6 85 Wealth andincome 15 Resourceuse 88 12 Pollutionand waste 75 25 Developedcountries Developingcountries

    48. Trade-Offs Economic Development Good News Bad News Life expectancy 11 years less in developing countries than in developed countries Global life expectancy doubled since 1950 Infant mortality rate in developing countries over 8 times higher than in developed countries Infant mortality cut in half since 1955 Harmful environmental effects of agriculture may limit future food production Food production ahead of population growth since 1978 Air and water pollution down in most developed countries since 1970 Air and water pollution levels in most developing countries too high Half of world’s people trying to live on less than $3 (U.S.) per day Number of people living in poverty dropped 6% since 1990

    49. Globalization • Globalization- process of social, economic and environmental changes that lead to increased interconnectedness throughout world • Information (internet) • International trading • Technology • Human mobility • **One country can’t be environmentally sustainable without the others!!

    50. Environmental and Resource ProblemsThe Big Five Causes • Major causes of problems 1. Population growth 2. Wasteful resource use 3. Poverty 4. Poor environmental accounting 5. Ecological and environmental ignorance