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Activities of Zoological Institute concerning biodiversity inventories in the Gulf of Finland and possibilities for cooperation. Sergey Golubkov, Nadezda Berezina, Marina Orlova, Aleksey Maximov, Eugenia Balushkina, Irena Telesh, Yulia Gubelit, Mikhail Golubkov.

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slide1

Activities of Zoological Institute concerning biodiversity inventories in the Gulf of Finland and possibilities for cooperation

Sergey Golubkov, Nadezda Berezina, Marina Orlova, Aleksey Maximov, Eugenia Balushkina, Irena Telesh, Yulia Gubelit, Mikhail Golubkov

Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences St. Petersburg, Russia, golubkov@zin.ru, www.zin.ru

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

contents

Contents

  • Eutrophication
  • Alien species
  • Climatic fluctuations

Brief history of long-term research

Eastern Gulf of Finland – HELCOM habitat reference site. Biodiversity indicators

Factors affecting biodiversity of bottom animals in open and coastal waters

  • Distributional patterns and their variability
  • Possibilities for cooperation

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

some publications
Some publications

Monographs:

  • Polution and self purification of the Neva River. 1968. Leningrad, 276 p. (In Russian)
  • Winberg G.G. & B. L. Gutelmakher (eds.) 1987. Neva Bay. Hydrobiological researches. Leningrad, Nauka,213 p. (in Russian)
  • Alimov A.F. (ed.) 1988. Invertebrates communities in littoral reeds ecosystems.Proc. Zool. Inst. Acad. Sci., 186, 220 p. (in Russian)
  • Alimov A.F. & N.V. Frolov (eds.) 1996. The environments of Neva River basin. St. Petersburg, Scientific Centre RAS, 208 p (in Russian)
  • Alimov A.F. & S.M. Golubkov (eds.). 2007. Ecosystem of the Neva Estuary: biodiversity and ecological problems. (in Russian, in preparation).

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide4

ZOOPLANKTON ATLAS OF THE BALTIC SEA

THE BALTIC MARINE BIOLOGISTS (BMB) Work Group 29: “Zooplankton Diversity”

WG Convener:

Irena V. Telesh

Zoological Institute of the

Russian Academy of Sciences

St. Petersburg

RUSSIA

2002

2004

Telesh & Heerkloss, 2002

Telesh & Heerkloss, 2004

recent papers in international journals and monograph
Recent papers in international journals and monograph
  • Telesh I.V., Golubkov S.M., Alimov A.F. 2007. Neva Estuary. In: Schiewer U. (ed.), Ecology of Baltic Coastal Waters. Springer Verlag. (In press)
  • Berezina N.A., Tsiplenkina I. G., Pankova E. S., Gubelit J. I. 2007. Dynamics of invertebrate communities in stony littoral of the Neva Estuary (Baltic Sea) under macroalgal blooms. Transitional Water Bulletin. 1: 49-60.
  • Orlova M.I, Telesh I.V, Berezina N.A, Antsulevich A.E, Maximov A.A, Litvinchuk L.F. 2006. Effects of nonindigenous species on diversity and community functioning in the eastern Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea). Helgoland Marine Research. 2: 98-105.
  • Berezina N. A., Golubkov S. M., Gubelit J. I. 2005. Grazing effects of alien amphipods on macroalgae in the littoral zone of the Neva Estuary (eastern Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea). Oceanological and Hydrobiological studies. 34 (1). 63-82.
  • Orlova M.I., Therriault T.W., Antonov P.I., Shcherbina G.Kh. 2005. Invasion ecology of quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis):a review of evolutionary and phylogenetic impacts. Aquatic Ecology 39: 401-418
  • Orlova M., Golubkov, S., Kalinina L., Ignatieva N. 2004. Dreissena polymoprha (Bivalvia, Dreissenidae) in the Neva Estuary (eastern Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea): Is it a biofilter or source for pollution? Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49: 196-205.
  • Telesh I.V. 2004. Plankton of the Baltic estuarine ecosystems with emphasis on Neva Estuary: a review of present knowledge and research perspectives. Marine Pollution Bull., 49: 206-219.
  • Golubkov S.M., S. Back, V.N.Nikulina, M.I. Orlova, L.E. Anokhina, L.P. Umnova 2003. Effects of eutrophication and invasión of Dreissena polymorpha in coastal zone of the eastern Gulf of Finland // Proc.Estonian Acad.Sci.Biol.Ecol., 52, 3: 218-235.
  • Maximov A.A. 2003. Changes of bottom macrofauna in the eastern Gulf of Finland in 1985-2002. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Biol. Ecol., Vol. 52, N 4. P. 378–393.
slide6

Zoological Institute is a custom institution of HELCOM/ICES

LEAD LABORATORY ON BIODIVERSITY OF

BALTIC SEA REGIONAL PROJECT

http://www.zin.ru/projects/baltdiv/index.html

Local Project Manager – Sergey Golubkov (e-mail: golubkov@zin.ru)

The Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Gdansk have been selected by the BSRP as demonstration areas for the assessment of biological diversity. This assessment is also expected to be an illustrative example for the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) – Biodiversity component. The assessment should be based on historical and recent data and on limited number of biodiversity indicators, proposed by the ICES/BSRP Study Group on Ecosystem Health (SGEH) as priority indicators

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

biodiversity indicators proposed by the ices bsrp study group on ecosystem health
Biodiversity indicators, proposed by the ICES/BSRP Study Group on Ecosystem Health
  • Area and depth distribution of submerged vascular plants and depth distribution of perennial macroalgae.
  • Zoobenthos community structure including (extinct) threatened and/or declining species
  • Alien species: non-indigenous species
  • Coastal fish community structure, and status of commercial fish species
  • Coastal bird species populations (key groups – sea ducks, divers, eiders, auks, cormorants)
  • Mammals: seal species population
  • Percentage of the MPA from total coastal zone and proportion of different depth ranges underprotection

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide8

Modern data were obtained during summer field expeditions on the catamaran Centaurus-2 conducted together with the team of the Russian State Hydrometeorological University

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide9

Stations of regular data collection in open waters of the eGF

Neva Estuary is one of the largest Baltic estuaries: area 400 km2, runoff of the Neva River is 2000-3000 m3/sec. The estuary consists of shallow freshwater Neva Bay and brackishwater eastern Gulf of Finland. In the middle 1980’s Neva Bay had been separated from lower part of the estuary by a storm-surge barrier (the Dam)

V-2

V-1

GF-8

GF-6

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

stations of regular data collection in the costal zone of the egf
Stations of regular data collection in the costal zone of the eGF

Midsummer biomass (2004)

and composition of zoobenthos

80.2

24.7

10.7

11.7

11.6

17.7

8.3

33.7

26.3

16.5

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

the major treats to biodiversity of egof
The major treats to biodiversity of eGoF:

Eutrophication

The macroalgal blooms and oxygen deficiency are temporal and spatial large-scale effects of eutrophication (nutrient increase) in coastal zone affecting negatively the benthic fauna

Invasive species

Established non-indigenous species can enter into direct interactions with native species through predation, resource competition, modification of habitats and hybridization

Decrease in biodiversity of benthos and increase a dominance of invasive species

slide13

Concentration of chlorophyll a in the eastern Gulf of Finlandin midsummer 2003-2006

2003

2004

2006

2005

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide14

Primary production of plankton (mgC l-1d-1) in the eastern Gulf of Finlandin midsummer 2003-2005

2003

2004

2005

2006

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide15

New oil terminal in Visotsk (Gulf of Vyborg)

After construction of oil terminals in Primorsk and Visotsk midsummer chlorophyll a concentration in the Gulf of Vyborg have increased 4 times. Intensive cyanobacteria blooms are observed.

slide16

“Macroalgal blooms” (mainly Cladophora glomerata) is severe environmental problem for littoral zone of the Neva Estuary

Beach in Resort District of St.Petersburg

Cladophora glomerata

“Macroalgae blooms”

17.07.05

Petrodvoretc

Neva Bay

slide17

Average biomass Cladophora glomerata near Zelenogorsk in 2003-2006

Estimated production of of filamentous algae Cladophora glomerata reaches 20 – 25 ton WW ha-1 month-1 in the northern littoral of the eastern Gulf of Finland at the depth 0.5 – 1.5 m

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

distribution of nuisance algae in the northern littoral
Distribution of nuisance algae in the northern littoral

Zone of drifting algae and algal mats

The great masses of the detached

filamentous algae on beaches, loose-lying and driftingalgal mats represent a serious treat to the biodiversity of coastal communities

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide19

Dynamics of oxygen in water (near bottom) and density of invertebrates at study sites

We obtained significant positive correlations between density of invertebrate groups (oligochaetes, chironomids, ephemeropterans, trichopterans, amphipods) and oxygen content in water. Temporary hypoxia (0.62–2.8 mgl-1) and 4-10-fold decrease in density of amphipods, oligochaetes and aquatic insects were rjdserved in littoral habitats during decomposition of drifting filamentous algae (July-August). We conclude that intensive macroalgal blooms in littoral zone due to hard eutrophication of the Neva Estuary can negatively affect density of intolerant species and structure of invertebrate community through deterioration of oxygen conditions as a result of intensive decomposition of drifting algae.

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide20

Alien amphipods Gmelinoides fasciatus and Pontogammarus robustoides established and have become dominant species at all studied habitats in the coastal zone of the Estuary. They contribute about 70 % in the total biomass of zoobenthos and practically replace of aborigine amphipod Gammarus lacustris

Gmelinoides fasciatus

Pontogammarus robustoides

Gammarus lacustris

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide21

NIS contribution into species diversity at the study area by the results for 2004-2005afterOrlova MI, Telesh IV, Berezina NA et al. 2006. Helgol Mar Res 60: 98–105

Total number of species

NIS and their (%) in total number

Assemblages

Phytoplankton 147 0 (0)

Phytobenthos 693 (4)

Zooplankton (holo-) 186 4 (2)

The same with larvae

of benthic animals 190 7 (3)

Zoobenthos, nectobenthos,

Fouling 196 22 (9)

Totally 59728 (5)

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

number of nis in the russian part of the egof

Primorsk

Cordylophora caspia

Dreissena polymoprha

Balanus improvisus

Potamopyrgus antipodarum

Jaera sarsi

Marenzelleria heglecta

Cercopagis pengoi

Evadne anonyx

Acartia tonsa

Gammarus tigrinus

Mustela vison

Resort District

Elodea canadensis

Acorus calamus

Riccia fluitans

Perccottus glenii

Acartia tonsa

Cordylophora caspia

Dreissena polymopha

Gmelinoides fasciatus

Pontogammarus robustoides

Chaetogammarus warpachowkyi

Marenzelleria neglecta

Potamothrix moldavensis

Isohaetides michaelseni

Tubifex newaensis

Paranais frici

Potamothrix veidovkyi

P. Heusheri

Cercopagis pengoi

Evadne anonyx

Prostoma puteale

Number of NIS in the Russian Part of the EGOF

12

Gulf of Vyborg

Acorus calamus

Elodea canadensis

Cornigerius maeoticus

Cercopagis pengoi

Evadne anonyx

Acartia tonsa

Dreissena polymoprha

Balanus improvisus

Cordylophora caspia

Jaera sarsi

Dreissena polymoprha

Dreissena bugensis

11

In 2006

Open waters

Tubificoides pseudogaster

Stenocuma graciloides

Larvae of NIS

Cercopagis pengoi

Evadne anonyx

Acartia tonsa

20(15)

Neva Bay

Cordylophora caspia

Dreissena polymorpha

Elodea canadensis

Acorus calamus

Riccia fluitans

Gmelinoides fasciatus

Pontogammarus robustoides

Eriocheir sinensis

Perccottus glenii

Neogobius melanostomus

Protrrorhynus marmoratus

Potamothrix moldavensis

Isohaetides michaelseni

Paranais frici

6-8

Luga Bay

Dreissena polymorpha

Codylophora caspia

Balanus improvisus

Cercopagis pengoi

Evadne anonyx

Acartia tonsa

Marenzelleria neglecta

14(10)

7

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide23
Complex and productive zoobenthos in shallow coastal zone (0.5-1.5 m) and dominance of invasive species

Midsummer biomass (2004)

and composition of zoobenthos

80.2

24.7

10.7

11.7

11.6

17.7

8.3

33.7

26.3

16.5

After Berezina NA, Tciplenkina IG, Pankova ES, Gubelit JI. 2007. Transitional Water Bulletin. 1. 49-60

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

at mixed and hard bottom
At mixed and hard bottom….

< 90% contributed by sessile seston feeders

High contribution of alien species to species diversity of macrozoobenthos

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

dreissena as an example for habitat engineer depth 2 5 m
Dreissena as an example for habitat engineer (depth 2-5 m)

waterfowl

Phytobenthos (Cladophora)

planktivorous fishes

benthivorous fishes

zooplankton

DIP= 513 kg/day (S=4.7 km2)

phytoplankton

bacterioplankton

water transparency

nutrients

faeces, pseudofaeces

microhabitats, substrate

phytobenthos

zoobenthos

Species-competitors

sediments

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

climatic fluctuations
Climatic fluctuations

Decrease of frequency of Major Baltic inflows from the Northern Sea from the middle of 1970’s to the middle of 1990’s is connected with climatic phase of intensive atmospheric circulation, intensive precipitationand increase of river runoff in the Baltic region in that time

Decrease of atmospheric circulation and decrease of river runoff are observed during the last 10 years. That results in intensive Major Baltic Inflows and intrusions of poor oxygen salt waters from the western Gulf of Finland to its eastern part in 1996 и 2003. These intrusions leads to temporal deterioration of bottom fauna in the eastern Gulf of Finland

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide27

Direct impact of periodic inflows of saline poor oxygen waters from the western Gulf of Finland

Biomass of zoobenthos in the eastern Gulf of Finland in 2003

The areas of low benthic biomass that were impacted by saline oxygen-poor waters from deeper western part of the Gulf of Finlandas a result ofMajor Baltic Inflows in 1996 and 2003. These intrusions led to destruction of zoobenthic communities

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide28

Two alien species Marenzelleria viridisand Tubificoides pseudogaster appeared in the middle 1990’s and widely distributed in the western part of the Neva Estuary. In future Marenzelleria may become an important factor of eutrophication due to its ability to enhance a nutrient release from bottom sediments.

Biomass of alien North-American polychaeta Marenzelleria viridisin the eastern Gulf of Finland in 2005

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

average biomass of zoobenthos g m 2 in the neva bay at the beginning of 1980 s and in 2000 s
Average biomass of zoobenthos (g/m2) in the Neva Bay at the beginning of 1980’s and in 2000’s

1980’s

Very high biomass of small freshwater mollusks Pisidiidae and worms Oligochaeta was observed in the eastern part of the Neva Bay at the beginning of 1980’s

2000’s

Rather low biomass of zoobenthos was observed in the eastern part of the Neva Bay in 2000’s. At present, the dominant groups are Oligochaeta and large freshwater mollusks Unionidae

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide30

Water discharge of the River Neva during the late decades

Water discharge of the River Neva considerably decreased since the middle of 1990’s. This may resulted in a great decrease in zoobenthic biomass due to strong relationships between this parameter and river runoff.

Relationships between biomass of zoobenthos in the Neva Bay and water discharge of the River Neva

River runoff, m3 sec-1

During XX Centaury high biomass of zoobenthos in the Neva Bay were observed in the years with high river runoff

vertical distribution of benthic habitats
Vertical distribution of benthic habitats

Open part

“littoral”

Shallow water

Deep water

Secchi depth

Phytal

Good illumination, terrestrial, semi-aquatic and aquatic vegetation, depth of 0-2 m, wave action, ice abrasion, water level oscillation up to 1m

Sands, hard and mixed bottoms, fouling and soft-bottom communities, depth of 2-7 m

Soft bottoms (clay, silt, sand) with episodic oxygen deficit events

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide32

Typical Dataset (1 transect) on dominant species (Dreissena polymoprha (1998-2005))

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide33

Variability

A portion of different taxa in the biomass of bottom animals in the eastern Gulf of Finland in 2000’s

In contrast to the early 1980’s when glacial relicts dominated in zoobenthos, Oligochaeta, alien Polychaeta and mollusk Macoma baltica dominate in bottom communities of the eastern Gulf of Finland nowadays.

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide35

Average value of zoobenthos species diversity indexfor Neva Bay in 1994 - 2005 for 180 examined stations

Species richness and biodiversity considerably changed during last decades

Average value of number of species of zoobenthos for Neva Bay in 1994 - 2005 for 180 examined stations

Average value of integrated index for Neva Bay in 1994 - 2005 for 180 examined stations

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide37

Assessment of the state and quality of waters of ecosystems of the

Neva Bay by Integrated Index in 2005

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

slide38

In different years the investigations of Zoological Institute were supported by

  • Russian State Programs “Ocean” and “Biodiversity”
  • Scientific Program of St. Petersburg Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences
  • Government of St. Petersburg
  • Finnish Ministry of Environment
  • INTAS Program
  • ICES/HELCOMBaltic Sea Regional Profect

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

summary
Summary
  • The most important anthropogenic factors affecting biodiversity of bottom animal communities are high eutrophication and facilitation of invasions of alien species;
  • Natural climatic fluctuations also contribute to variability of biodiversity and distributional patterns in the eastern Gulf of Finland;

Trilateral cooperation may concern

  • inventory of species composition and modern distributional patterns of bottom and planktonic communities in different parts of the Gulf of Finland;
  • analysis of long-term data-sets to better understanding of factors effecting biodiversity;
  • creation and cross-country exchange by GIS data-bases
  • harmonization of the methods of biodiversity assessment, and methods using biodiversity for environmental assessment.

Kotka, April 12-13, 2007