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1801-1816. The Age of Jefferson. Was much more casual then past Pres’ Wanted to make gov . more democratic All people have the same rights Wanted to end political disputes Wanted to lessen the Fed. Gov’s power. New Economic Policies Reduced federal budget to keep debt low

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Was much more casual then past Pres’

  • Wanted to make gov. more democratic
    • All people have the same rights
  • Wanted to end political disputes
  • Wanted to lessen the Fed. Gov’s power

New Economic Policies

    • Reduced federal budget to keep debt low
      • Albert Gallatin (Sec. of Treasury) & Jefferson believed in laissez fair (leave alone) and a free market (goods & services are exchanged w/ little regulation)
      • Gov. should play as small a role as possible in gov.
    • Less Active Gov.
      • Repeal whiskey tax, reduced army & navy & gov. jobs
    • Kept Bank of US & continued to pay off state debts

2. Strengthening the Supreme Court

  • Adams appointed 58 Federalists to jobs in Gov. b4 term ended
  • Jefferson told Madison not to seal papers so appointees couldn’t take office
  • William Marbury was one & sued Madison for writ of assistance (forced) to give papers from Judiciary Act
  • Chief Justice John Marshall had to decide case

Marshall wrote that Judiciary Act was unconstitutional

  • Gave Supreme Court power of Judicial Review
  • Jefferson unhappy b/c he thought it went against balance of 3 branches
the louisiana purchase
The Louisiana Purchase
  • Surrendered by Spain to France in 1800
    • Voided Pinckney Treaty
    • Gave U.S. right of deposit in New Orleans
  • Threatened hold on lands W. of Appalachians
    • Farmers might not get crops to market.
  • Feared Napoleon building a N. American empire – Which was his plan!

Toussaint L’Ouverture

    • Led a slave revolt on the island of Hispaniola
    • Finally crushed after Napoleon sent 20,000 troops
    • Ended Napoleon’s dream of a N. American empire


    • James Monroe & Robert Livingston -Sent to France to negotiate deal
    • Authorized to purchase New Orleans & W. Florida for up to $10 million
    • Talleyrand - French offered all of Louisiana for $15 million in 1803
      • 60 million francs or 3¢ per acre
    • Monroe & Livingston agreed w/o consent of Jefferson or Congress

Jefferson’s Dilemma

    • Believed negotiation had no power to add new territory or to grant citizenship to residents of territory
      • So concluded the purchase was unconstitutional
    • He submitted the treaty to the Senate anyway, which easily ratified
    • Opposed by the Federalists
      • B/c the W. had been voting Republican = More western states, more Republicans, less control for Federalists

Lewis and Clark

    • Sent to explore the Louisiana Purchase(1804-06)
    • Meriwether Lewis – Jefferson’s personal secretary & William Clark – professional soldier left from St. Louis in 1804
    • Assisted by Sacajawea - Shoshone guide & translator
    • Followed course of Missouri R. to mouth of Columbia R.
      • Giving the U.S. claims to the Oregon Country

Achievements of Lewis & Clark Expedition

  • Pike traveled to Colorado mountains named Pikes Peak and into Mexico & Texas

Described plants & animals they saw

Created map of route to Pacific Ocean

Lewis & Clark Expedition

Reported on climate in regions they visited

Gathered info on N.A. they met

Explored large area of Louisiana Purchase

new threats overseas
New Threats Overseas
  • Began trading in Pacific NW & to China
  • Traded in Med. Sea but dangerous in Barbary States (N. Africa)
    • Had to pay yearly tribute (bribe) to trade
    • Pirates captured goods & ships until 1805
    • Led to bigger US Navy
  • 1803 – Britain & France had another war
    • US stayed neutral while F. & B. again took US ships
    • B. used impressment (force ppl into service) of US sailors

Jefferson issued Embargo Act (ban on trade) hoping to hurt Britain & France

    • Hurt Americans selling items & buying supplies
    • Ppl smuggled (importing or exporting goods illegally)
  • Nonintercourse Act: repealed Embargo Act & said US can trade w/ every1 but F & B
  • 1808 – James Madison was easily elected
the road to war
The Road to War
  • Native Americans & settlers began fighting over land west of App. Mtns.
    • N.A. mad settlers built farms & hunted their animals
  • Techumseh tried to form confederation in Ohio to stop white settlers
    • Settlers fought NA in Battle of Tippecanoe
      • Both suffered heavy losses but settlers won
      • NA still vowed to resist settlers

F. agreed to peace if US would trade w/ only them

  • War Hawks: merchants, South & West settlers who wanted to go to war w/ B.
  • Led by Henry Clay (Kentucky) who had strong sense of nationalism (devotion to one’s country)
    • Wanted to punish B. for taking ships & impressment
    • Conquer Canada & gain Florida from Spain (ally of B.)
    • B. were giving ammunition & weapons to encourage N.A. to fight settlers

British continued to take US ships

  • 1811 battle in NYC – US crippled war ship
  • June 1812 – Madison & Congress declare war on B.
war of 1812
War of 1812
  • US unprepared 4 war
    • Army small & poorly trained & navy ships # small
  • Most of B. troops fighting French still
  • 8/1812 – USS Constitution defeats HMS Guerriere, which stunned British
  • US tried for Canada but B.

general made it look like

had more soldiers

  • Battle of Lake Erie
    • American Oliver Perry won

lake for US


1814 B. defeated F. so focus turned on US

  • Aug. 1814 – British easily defeated untrained US soldier in Washington D.C.
    • Burned White House & other buildings
  • Marched north to Baltimore & Fort McHenry
    • Americans able to defeat them
    • Francis Scott Key wrote “The Star-Spangled Banner”

Battle of New Orleans – 1815

    • B. wanted to sail up Miss. River
    • Andrew Jackson, Tenn. Officer, took

control of frontiers fighters who were well trained

    • Americans dug trenches waiting for B. to attack
    • Over 2,000 B. were killed in battle = 7 Americans
    • Battle actually took place 2 weeks after peace treaty

African Americans helped US win in army & navy

  • New Englanders & Federalists disliked war b/c new states meant less influence in gov. for them
    • Hartford Convention – threatened to leave union
  • Treaty of Ghent – Dec. 24, 1814
    • Restore prewar conditions
    • Nothing about impressments

or neutrality