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Age of Jefferson. Unit IIIA AP United States History. Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809). Plantation farmer from Virginia Statesman (Assemblyman, Declaration of Independence, Governor, Minister to France, Secretary of State, Vice-President, President) Democratic-Republican

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Age of jefferson

Age of Jefferson


AP United States History

Thomas jefferson 1801 1809
Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809)

  • Plantation farmer from Virginia

  • Statesman (Assemblyman, Declaration of Independence, Governor, Minister to France, Secretary of State, Vice-President, President)

  • Democratic-Republican

    • Founded the party in opposition to Alexander Hamilton’s Federalists

    • Kentucky Resolution

    • “Every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle... We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.”

  • “Renaissance Man”

    • Inventor, philosopher, architect, scientist

  • Slave owner

What is jeffersonianism
What is Jeffersonianism?

  • Republicanism and Civic Virtue

    • Citizens’ civic duty to aid the state

      • Voting and efficacy

      • Right to education

    • Resist corruption and Natural Elites

  • Federalism and States’ Rights

    • Ultimate sovereignty in the states and nullification

    • Strict constitutionalist

    • Dominant legislature, weak judiciary

    • Economic coercion over standing armies

  • Yeoman Farmers as Ideal Citizens

    • Educated landowners exemplified independence and virtue

  • Agriculture Over Manufacture/Industry

    • Responsibility of subsistence

    • Dependence led to class conflict

  • Empire of Liberty and Foreign Policy

    • America’s responsibility to spread democracy

    • Avoid entangling alliances

  • Society

    • Republican motherhood; absent from politics

    • Natives capable, just need to catch up (noble savages)

    • Black inferiority and white superiority

    • Separation of Church and State

Was jefferson jeffersonian
Was Jefferson Jeffersonian?

  • Consider the following historical concepts and events and answer the above question…

  • The Federal Judiciary

  • Louisiana Purchase

  • Barbary/Tripoli Pirates

  • Embargo Act of 1807

First party system 1792 1824
First Party System (1792-1824)

  • American period of political parties between the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans

  • Federalists:

    • Nationalism; republicanism

    • loose interpretation of Constitution;

    • business, commercial, and upper class;

    • New England;

    • pro-British;

    • dominated early years of national government, but dominated most of Judiciary

  • Democratic-Republicans:

    • States’ rights; individual liberties

    • strict interpretation of Constitution;

    • working class;

    • South, West, frontier;

    • large majorities in Congress and Executive in latter years

Jefferson and the federal judiciary

Only Federalist justices on the Supreme Court

John Marshall as Chief Justice

Judiciary Act of 1801

Federalist Congress passed before Jefferson assumed office

Reduced number of SC justices

Increased number of federal courts; filled by Adams

Midnight Judges

Repealed in 1802 by D-R Congress

Marbury v. Madison (1803)

Writ of mandamus

Judicial review - Supreme Court’s determining constitutionality of issues

“It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is.”

Democratic-Republicans lead impeachments against Federalist judges

Alcoholism and partisanship grounds for impeachment?

John Pickering

SC Justice Samuel Chase

Jefferson and the Federal Judiciary

Jefferson and the louisiana purchase 1803 1804
Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase(1803-1804)

  • Napoleon’s Caribbean Empire Plan and Britain’s Control of the Atlantic

    • America sandwiched between European powers

  • Brokered a deal for $15 million

    • Gain control of New Orleans

  • Lewis and Clark Expedition

    • Find waterway from east to Pacific

  • Federalist opposition

Jefferson and the barbary tripoli pirates
Jefferson and the Barbary/Tripoli Pirates

  • Barbary/Tripoli pirates earned revenue for North African states

  • Extorting and harassing American ships

  • U.S. Navy and Marines dispatched to end the Barbary/Tripoli threat

  • Treaty signed in 1805 in favor of Americans

  • War cost less than preserving peace

Jefferson and the embargo act
Jefferson and the Embargo Act

  • Orders of Council and Continental System outlawed American trade

  • British impressment of Americans and seizures of American ships

    • HMS Leopard and USS Chesapeake

  • Embargo Act of 1807

    • Prohibited vessels from leaving American ports for foreign ports

    • Economic impact on Americans

      • Merchants and traders suffered

      • Farms foreclosed

    • Increased production and diversified manufacturing

Jefferson s legacy becomes madison s
Jefferson’s Legacy Becomes Madison’s

  • James Madison (D-R) elected President, but Federalists gain some seats

  • Anglo-French rivalry bullies USA

    • Seizing American ships

  • Nonintercourse Act of 1809

    • Forbade trade with Britain and France unless promised to cease harassing U.S. ships

  • Macon’s Bill No. 2 (1810)

    • If Britain or France repealed restrictions on neutral ships then U.S. would cease trade with the other

  • British influence in the West

    • Rumors of British stirring up anti-American sentiment among Natives

    • Battle of Tippecanoe (1811)

Leading up to the war of 1812

United States vs. Great Britain

British impressment

“Our old enemy.”

British influence in the frontier

War hawks

John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay



Old guard Dem-Reps

New England and merchants

Leading Up to the War of 1812

War of 1812
War of 1812

  • Failed American invasion of Canada

  • British Invasion of D.C. and Baltimore

    • Washington, D.C. burned (August 1814)

    • Ft. McHenry (September 1814)

  • Naval Victories and U.S.S. Constitution

  • Americans and the Natives

    • Tecumseh and William Henry Harrison

    • Battle of Horseshoe Bend (March 1814)

  • Treaty of Ghent (December 1814)

    • Stalemate; nothing earned

    • Patriotic victory

  • Battle of New Orleans (January 1815)

    • Andrew Jackson

Old ironsides
“Old Ironsides”

  • Constructed in 1797

  • Still in commission

42 Wins

0 Losses

The end of the federalists
The End of the Federalists

  • “Victory” over Great Britain and pro-British/anti-war support labeled them as unpatriotic

  • Hartford Convention (Dec. 1814)

    • Ratify Constitution in attempt to weaken Dem-Rep in West and South

    • Talk of secession by radicals*

  • After the War of 1812 Federalists soon would dissolve even in New England stronghold

War of 1812 s impact
War of 1812’s Impact

  • International respect

  • Development of U.S.-Canada relations

  • Natives on their own and weak

  • Industrial development

  • Growth of nationalism

  • Eyes toward the West