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B2B E-Commerce: Supply Chain Management and Collaborative Commerce

B2B E-Commerce: Supply Chain Management and Collaborative Commerce

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B2B E-Commerce: Supply Chain Management and Collaborative Commerce

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  1. B2B E-Commerce: Supply Chain Management and Collaborative Commerce

    Chapter 12
  2. Learning Objectives Define the term supply chain and describe its components Describe supply chain management and its goals Identify various problems that can occur along supply chains Describe the evolution of solutions used to improve supply chain management Define B2B commerce and understand its scope and history Identify the main types of B2B e-commerce: Net marketplaces and private industrial networks Identify the major trends in the development of the four types of Net marketplaces Identify the role of private industrial networks in transforming the supply chain Understand the role of private industrial networks in supporting collaborative commerce
  3. What is a supply chain? A supply chain refers to the flow of materials, information, payments, and services from raw materials suppliers, through factories and warehouses, to the end customers There are typically three types of flows in the supply chain: Materials Information Financial In some supply chains there are fewer types of flows – for example, in service industries there may be no physical flow of materials
  4. Problems Along the Supply Chain The problems along the supply chain stem mainly from two sources: From uncertainties From the need to coordinate several activities, internal units, and business partners A major source of uncertainty is the demand forecast that may be influenced by competition, prices, weather conditions, technological development, and customers’ general confidence Other uncertainties exist in delivery times Quality problems of materials and parts may also create production delays
  5. Solutions to Supply Chain Problems Over the years, organizations have developed many solutions to the supply chain problems One of the earliest solutions was vertical integration where one organization owns the firms involved in each step in the supply chain The most common solution has been building inventories as an “insurance” against supply chain uncertainties The most recent solution has been increased use of interorganizational information systems for sharing information between supply chain partners and more accurate measuring of supply chain performance These systems include MRP, ERP, supply chain systems, and more recently various forms of Internet-based B2B e-commerce
  6. B2B E-Commerce and SCM The total amount of B2B trade in the US in 2013 was about $12.9 trillion B2B e-commerce contributed about $4.7 trillion of that amount, and by 2017 this should grow to $6.6 trillion in the US The process of conducting trade among business firms is complex and requires significant human intervention, and therefore, consumes significant resources Some firms estimate that each purchase order costs them at least $100 in administrative overhead
  7. B2B E-Commerce and SCM (cont.) Administrative overhead includes processing paper, approving purchase decisions, spending time using the telephone and fax to search for products, arranging for shipping, and receiving the goods Across the economy, this adds up to trillions of dollars annually being spent for procurement processes that could potentially be automated If even just a portion of inter-firm trade were automated, then literally trillions of dollars might be released for more productive uses
  8. The Evolution of B2B E-Commerce B2B commerce has evolved over a 35-year period through several technology-driven stages These stages include: Automated order entry systems Electronic data interchange (EDI) Digital storefronts Net marketplaces Private industrial networks Social networks
  9. Potential Benefits of B2B E-Commerce Lower administrative costs Lower search costs for buyers Reduce inventory costs Lower transaction costs Increase production flexibility Improve quality of products by increasing cooperation among buyers and sellers Decrease product cycle time Increase opportunities for collaborating with suppliers and distributors Create greater price transparency Increase the visibility and real-time information sharing among all participants in the supply chain network
  10. Types of Procurement Two distinctions are important for understanding how B2B e-commerce can improve the procurement process First, firms make purchase of two kinds of goods from suppliers: Direct goods Indirect goods Second, firms use two different methods for purchasing goods: Contract purchasing Spot purchasing
  11. Trends in SCM and Collaborative Commerce Just-in-time and lean production Supply chain simplification Work closely with a smaller group of strategic supplier firms Supply chain black swans: adaptive supply chains Accountable supply chains: labor standards Sustainable supply chains: lean, mean and green Electronic data interchange (EDI) Supply chain management systems: mobile B2B Continuously link partner information systems Collaborative commerce Use of digital technologies to collaboratively design, develop, build, and manage products across their life cycle Social networks and B2B: the extended social enterprise
  12. Main Types of Internet-Based B2B Commerce There are two generic types of Internet-based B2B commerce systems: Net marketplaces Private industrial networks (PINs) Net marketplaces bring together potentially thousands of sellers and buyers into a single digital marketplace operated over the Internet Private industrial networks bring together a small number of strategic business partner firms that collaborate to develop highly efficient supply chains
  13. Net Marketplaces One of the most compelling visions of B2B e-commerce is that of an electronic marketplace on the Internet that would bring thousands of fragmented suppliers into contact with hundreds of major purchasers of industrial goods In pursuit of this vision, well over 1500 Net marketplaces sprang up in the early days of e-commerce Many failed, but about 200 still survive
  14. Private Industrial Networks Private industrial networks (PINs) today form the largest part of B2B e-commerce Industry analysts estimate that in 2012, over 50% of B2B expenditures by large firms were for development of private industrial networks PINs can be considered the foundation of the “extended enterprise,” allowing firms to extend their boundaries and their business processes to include supply chain and logistics partners A PIN is a Web-enabled network for the coordination of trans-organizational business processes (sometimes also called collaborative commerce)
  15. Characteristics of PINs The specific objectives of a PIN include: Developing efficient purchasing and selling processes Developing industry-wide resource planning Increasing supply chain visibility Achieving closer buyer-seller relationships Operating on a global scale Reducing industry risk by preventing imbalances of supply and demand
  16. PINs and Collaborative Commerce Collaboration among businesses can take many forms and involve a wide range of activities: Industry-wide collaborative resource planning, forecasting, and replenishment Demand chain visibility Marketing coordination and product design
  17. Implementation Barriers There are a number of barriers to successful collaborative commerce implementation Participating firms are required to share sensitive data with their business partners Requires a significant investment of time and money Requires a change in mindset and behavior for employees – they must shift their loyalties from the firm to the wider trans-organizational enterprise and recognize that their fate is intertwined with the fate of their suppliers and distributors All firms lose some of their independence