How does Fred Jones Establish Class Discipline by Keeping Students Responsibly Involved? Fred Jones
What areas contribute to misbehaviors? Massive Time Wasting Student Passivity Student Aimlessness Helpless Hand raising Ineffective Teacher Nagging
Massive Time Wasting What is it? • Talking • Goofing Off • Day dreaming • Moving about the room
Massive Time Wasting Did you know? • One or more of the four disruptions mentioned were present about 95% of the time during any classroom disruption • In a well-managed classroom one of the mentioned disruptions occurred about every two minutes • In an unruly class the disruptions averaged about 2 ½ per minute • With dealing with disruptions 50% of teaching time was lost • An average class took 5-7 minutes after the bell rang to get going • Transitions between activities took 5 minutes • Expert time wasters take every advantage possible
Massive Time Wasting Suggested Solutions • Clearly communicating class requirements to students • Following through with class rules • Establishing and practicing routines • Increasing student motivation to engage in activities • Using effective ways of providing help to students who need it • Responsibility Training
Responsibility Training • Responsibility training is a program that teaches time management to students by giving them time to earn or lose • Jones believes that we need to give students time in order for them to learn how to manage it just like we give children allowance and chore money so they can learn money management • Jones suggests providing students incentives to hustle rather than dawdle in the classroom • Jones believes that students will create their own PAT without the educational value (such as dawdling to talk to friends and avoid work) if not provided with incentive to hustle
This is accomplished by allowing students to earn time for Preferred Activity Time (PAT) • PAT includes educational activities a teacher creates for students the students to earn time to participate in The power of Responsibility Training does not come from the thrill value of the PAT. It comes from the empowerment of the group over its own destiny. Jones PAT in Perspective The teacher is not rewarding or punishing student behavior as much as they are simply keeping an accurate record of the students’ decisions. Jones PAT in Perspective
A Classroom Example Imagine a fifth grade teacher who values art as part of the curriculum and would do art projects whether she knew anything about incentives or not. The teacher, however, is wise to incentives and knows how to get two for the price of one. She might start the day with the following announcement:"Students, I would like to direct your attention to the project table over by the window. As you can see, I have laid out art supplies for our preferred activity at the end of the day. As usual, I have set aside twenty minutes for Preferred Activity Time (PAT)."Of course, once you get started on an art project, you always love to have more time. And this time, you can! All the time we save during the day by hustling will be added to PAT. We could have forty minutes for art if we really get things done." • By giving a initial gift of PAT time, the students do not only have PAT time to earn, but also PAT time to protect. • It also allows for the process to be “rigged” in order for students to always get some PAT.
How do I gain the Time? • The Transition Hustle! • Choose a routine • Estimate how much time it would take to complete if all the students were hustling • Round this amount up to the nearest minute and double it • This create your goal time for PAT earning
Keeping Track • a T chart is put on the board with 2 columns labeled time gained and time lost • - an initial gift of PAT is given so that if the students are over their target time, they still get some PAT • - Jones states that students are rarely over their time especially after the first weeks
Protecting PAT • -the whole class must comply before you give bonus PAT • - when a student or student does not comply, Jones suggests a fail-safe mechanism • - He calls this “Cut Them Out of the Herd” and suggests after 3 times, the student no longer is part of the PAT system and gives the class back their points • --the student then becomes solely responsible to the teacher • - the class is told of the process
Omission Training • -the student who is cut from the program can regain a part by omission Training • --the student earns points for himself and the class for eliminating problem behavior in a set amount of time • -Jones claims this is a win-win for chronic behavior as both the teacher and student become encouragers and all benefit from the reduction in misbehavior
Examples of PAT • Pictionary (all grades) • Duck, Duck, Spell (K-3) • Alphabet Search (Grades 2-12) To aid the students in recalling information given over a long period of time. • Chalkboard Relays (Grades 4-12) Fast recall and categorizing in the subject area • Senior Years? • PAT can be banked for a projects -creating a puppet play for elementary school - Building race car track for physics • Or a traditional last 10 minute review could become a game (Jeopardy) • PAT can also be added time to already motivating activities such as art projects, math games, and centre time
Student Passivity & Helpless Hand raising Did you know? • Brought on in large measure by teaching method • Meaning students in the early phases of the lessons were not required to participate actively or show accountability teacher input – input – input – input – input – input – input – student output • Students merely sit and listen as teachers explain and demonstrate • Known as “Bop ‘til you drop”
Student Passivity & Helpless Hand raising Suggested Solutions Jones’ Say, See, Do Teaching Approach Present info and quickly have students do something with it!!! teacher input – student output – teacher input – student output – teacher input – student output Want this to be more effective?
Student Passivity & Helpless Hand raising Suggested Solutions Augment with Visual Instructional Plans (VIPS) • One step at a time • A picture for every step • Minimum reliance on words
Fred Jones Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MInPwzg6TiQ&feature=related
Student Aimlessness Did you know? • Defined by what students can get away with • If teachers do not take the time to teach expectations and classroom procedures carefully and they fail to follow through – teacher will consistently get whatever the students feel like giving them
Student Aimlessness Suggested Solutions • Teaching and enforcing classroom procedure • Incentives • Preferred Activity Time (PAT)
Preferred Activity Time (PAT) What is it? How does it work? Do’s/Benefits • Freedom to choose a variety of approved activities • Classmates motivate each other to stay on task in order to earn time for PAT • Class rewarded and punished together regardless of whom misbehaves • Activities are of educational value • Students complete all their work before taking part in PAT • Helps students learn to take responsibility for their decisions and actions
Preferred Activity Time (PAT) What is it? How does it work? Don‘t • Never left to do just anything • Do not proceed without guidance “Student’s won’t work for long to earn free time but they will work hard to gain time for an activity they enjoy!” (Jones, pg 129)
Ineffective Teacher Nagging Did you know? • Teachers spend a great deal nagging students • “Stop talking, you should have started your work already.” • Known as the nag-nag-nag syndrome
Ineffective Teacher Nagging Suggested Solutions Show that you mean business by • Setting limits (acceptable and unacceptable behaviour) • Convey messages through body language • Proper breathing • Eye Contact • Physical Proximity • Body Carriage • Facial Expressions • Backup systems
Backup System Hierarchal Arrangement • Convey privately or semi-privately to the student • Deliver publicly in the classroom (warnings, reprimands, loss of privilege & parent conferences) • Require involvement of 2 professionals (office, in-out school suspension, placement in alternate class/school)
Conclusion Seat Work is susceptible to 4 problems • Wasted time • Insufficient time for teachers to answer all request for help • High potential for misbehaviour • Perpetuation of student dependency on the teacher
Conclusion Teachers learn to provide help efficiently • Organize the classroom seating so that all students can be reached quickly • Use visual instructional plans (VIPS) • Minimize the time used for giving help to students
In Summary To Be Effective, Jones says • Conceptualize and initiate his approach as a five tier system • Classroom Structure • Limit Setting • Say, See, Do Teaching • Incentives • Backup-systems • Preserve and make wise use of instructional time • Structure your classroom and program • Use body language and personal-relations skills • Make use of Say, See Do Teaching • “Work the Crowd” • Keep individual help to students to 20 seconds or less • Use class incentives to foster student involvement and increase responsibility
DiscussionHow Fred Jones Establishes Class Discipline In the following scenarios: • Identify the problem that promotes the undesired behaviour • Describe how Fred Jones would have the teacher deal with it
DiscussionHow Fred Jones Establishes Class Discipline • Mr. Smith tries to help all of his students during independent work time but finds himself unable to get around to all who have there hands raised
DiscussionHow Fred Jones Establishes Class Discipline • Mrs. Swan wears herself out every day dealing with class clowns who disrupt her lessons. The other students always laugh at the clowns’ antics.
DiscussionHow Fred Jones Establishes Class Discipline • Ms. Peters, who takes pride in her lectures, is becoming frustrated because students begin to gaze out the window and whisper before she has completed what she wants to tell them.
DiscussionFinal Thought • Do you feel that any of Jones’ strategies would be effective in establishing classroom discipline? • Which strategy would be the most or least effective? • Why or why not?
Positives • pinpoints some bad teaching habits and gives some accessible and reasonable solutions • VIPs can be a powerful teaching tool and helps to solve the common and frustrating problem of helpless hand raising • time management is an important skill • by using PAT daily, the end of the day ends positively • uses an incentive system that incorporates educational activities
Pitfalls Teaching Richly? It is important not to save all the preferred and rich learning activities for PAT because • gives the message that most learning is not fun and exciting • the activities become disconnected from other educational activities so that it is not seen as educational at all • decreases the quality of teaching
Pitfalls The Whole Class System Jones’ method of whole class reward and penalty • creates an ultimatum—buy in or cause trouble • makes students who won’t or can’t comply stand out to their peers as obstacles to a reward • Jones’ solution to a student’s noncompliance is to “Cut Them Out Of The Herd” Jones (2006) and have the student involved in omission training • this leads to further exclusion
Jones believes “the strength of this approach is that engenders peer pressure against misbehaviour.” Charles C. M. (2010) • peer pressure in itself is not a bad thing, but has some dangers when employed directly by a teacher in order to control • it is our job to discipline students, not other students
Pitfalls • any problems the approach has can be multiplied by the number of peers • if the teacher models public shaming, students feel it is okay • if the approach negatively effects a student’s relationship to the teacher, it will also translate to the peers • can lead unhealthy relationships between peers • frustration • bullying • the “SHUT UP!” factor
Pitfalls The Back-up System The Public Reprimand & Loss of Dignity • Jones’ use of the public reprimand in the back up system is deeply problematic. • It uses shaming as a form of punishment to deter the student when talking to them privately does not work. • The use of it in a system that uses peer pressure to ensure student compliance adds to the problem.
Always treat students with dignity. In school, we must let students know that their dignity will always be maintained. There is no better way to damage a students’ dignity than to embarrass them in front of their friends, scold them in public, or have them fail in front of the class. Dignity is enhanced when students have opportunities to lead, make decisions, and give input. It becomes part of the school’s fabric when they are viewed as partners in creating and sustaining the school climate, rather than simply being recipients of adults efforts. Mendler, R.L. , Mendler A.N., & Curwin, B.D. (2008)
A Teaching Philosophy In Kids are Worth It! (1994), Barbara Coloroso asks adults to declare that “I will not treat a child in a way I myself would not want to be treated” Scenario You have not handed in a required piece of work and the principal has already reminded you in the staff room one on one. She/he then decides to reprimand you in front of everyone at the staff meeting. Would I want this done to my ten year old self?”
Charles, C.M. (2011). Building Classroom Discipline (10th Ed.) “How Does Fred Jones Establish Class Discipline by Keeping Students Responsibility Involved? pp. 120-137.” Boston, MA: Pearson Coloroso, Barbara (1994) Kids are Worth It!: Giving Your Child the Gift of Inner Discipline. Toronto, ON: Somerville House Publishing. Creating Effective Lessons the Easy way with Fred Jones. YouTube Video. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MInPwzg6TiQ&feature=related Curwin, R.L., Mendler, A.N., & Mendler, B. D. (2008) Discipline with Dignity: New Challenges, New Solutions. (3rd Ed.) Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Jones, Fred (2003). Weaning the Helpless Handraiser, Part 1: Reinforcing Helplessness. Education World. Retrieved from: www.educationworld.com/a_curr/columnists/jones/jones003.shtml Resources
Resources Jones, Fred. (2003). Weaning the Helpless Handraiser, Part 2: Teaching the Visual Modality. Education World. Retrieved from: www.educationworld.com/a_curr/columnists/jones/jones003.shtml Jones, Fred. (2003). Weaning the Helpless Handraiser, Part 3: Teaching the Physical Modality. Education World. Retrieved from: www.educationworld.com/a_curr/columnists/jones/jones003.shtml Jones, Fred (May 2006) Responsibility Training. Retrieved from: http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/columnists/jones/jones027.shtml Jones, Fred (2010) Responsibility Training: PAT in Perspective. Retrieved from http://www.fredjones.com/Tools-for-Teaching/PAT-Perspective.html Jones, Fred (2010) PAT Bank. Retrieved from: http://www.fredjones.com/PAT/index.html