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Diving in Sai Kung Issue & Gap Analysis. Andries Temme Susan Voelkl. Content. Former Knowledge Gaps Problems (Baseline Conditions) Concerns Stakeholder Benchmarking against other models Alternatives/Suggestions Issues & Difficulties. Former Knowledge Gaps. Artificial Reefs in Hong Kong

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Presentation Transcript
content
Content
  • Former Knowledge Gaps
  • Problems (Baseline Conditions)
  • Concerns Stakeholder
  • Benchmarking against other models
  • Alternatives/Suggestions
  • Issues & Difficulties
former knowledge gaps
Former Knowledge Gaps
  • Artificial Reefs in Hong Kong
  • Boat Pollution (waste practices)
  • Influence of NGOs, NPOs
  • Statistics
  • Equipment Supplier
artificial reefs in hk purposes
Artificial Reefs in HK - Purposes
  • Enhance Marine resources
    • Fisheries enhancement purposes
    • Attracting & Supporting large populations of fish
    • Feeding opportunities for fish
  • Rehabilitate degraded habitats
  • Protect spawning and nursery grounds and MPAs (trawlers)
  • Enhance habitat quality in open seabed areas – provide complex, hard surface habitat
ars in hk background
ARs in HK - Background
  • July 1995: HK Government announced HK$108 million AR Project
  • 1996: AR division within AFCD
  • 168,700m² of ARs in HK
  • Deployment of vessels, concrete, quarry rock, and tyre reefs
ars in hk studies
ARs in HK - Studies
  • Combination of ARs & „no take“ fisheries protection areas -> significant ecological & economic benefits
    • Benefits of „no take“ zones outweigh AR
  • Trawl ban would lead to gains in biomass, benefits to remaining fishing sectors, long-term economic gains
  • … planned that AR deployment area at Outer Port Shelter will form part of future FPAs & will be managed as "no-take" area where no fishing activities will be permitted …
boat pollution
Boat Pollution
  • Illegal fuel (mainland)
    • Common practice
  • Suntan, shampoo, shower gel
    • “We tell our customers not to use it – but sometimes it happens”
  • Toilets
    • Most small boats don’t have a toilet on board
  • Waste practices on board
    • “We tell our customers not to throw anything over board.....”
boat pollution10
Boat Pollution
  • Disposal of waste
    • Diving boats: Facilities at Sai Kung harbour
    • Local fisher man: ocean
    • Junk Boats: ocean
  • Noise pollution
    • Sound travels 4 times faster in water (1,230 m/sec) than in air (340 m/sec)
    • Military sonar, ships, oil exploration & drilling, offshore construction, motor boats, jet skis …
    • Disrupting and/or killing whales, dolphins, and other marine life
    • Longterm effects are NOT known
influence of ngos npos
Influence of NGOs / NPOs
  • Groups that collaborate with Government
    • WWF
    • Hong Kong Dolphin Conservation Society
  • No direct influence but
    • Raising awareness
      • Marker Buoys
  • Reefcheck
    • Since 1997 (carried out by WWF)
    • Government since 2000
    • WWF: Government could do much more
statistics
Statistics
  • 29 – 32 diving agencies in Hong Kong
    • Not all are members of the HKUA
    • 3 big companies
    • Employees
      • Big agencies ~ 10 employees
      • Small agencies ~ 5 employees
      • Mainly part-time (instructors)
      • ~ 173 employees
    • Boats
      • ~ 30 diving boats are leaving the harbor of SK on a typical Sunday
      • Not all companies have their own boats
equipment suppliers
Equipment Suppliers
  • The good guys and the bad guys......
    • Cheap agencies in Kowloon
      • Mainly from China
    • The ones that like to live
      • Mainly from Thailand & US (special parts from Italy)
    • No special ties
problems
Problems
  • Boat Pollution
    • Suntan
    • Waste (toilet, food)
      • Fecal bacteria have negative influence on coral and fish growth
    • Noise
  • Overland Pollution
    • Public transport
  • Anchoring
    • Scares away fish and damages coral
    • Retrieval can cause large chunk of coral to be broken
problems15
Problems
  • Disturbance
    • Touching and Breaking of Coral
      • Beginner Courses – Buoyancy
      • Oil and bacteria from skin harms corals
      • Breaking can lead to infection at wound site
    • Raising of sediment from the seafloor
      • Reduces photossynthesis of zooxathelae
    • Physical presence
  • Even though divers are very careful, statistics dictate that as more divers dive disturbances will increase
concerns stakeholder
Concerns Stakeholder
  • Diving Community
    • Overfishing & Trawling
    • Anchoring
    • Recreational activities (Junk boats, Jet Ski)
      • Pollution, Safety
    • Low-price agencies in Kowloon
      • Price dumping / safety issues
  • AFCD
    • Raising awareness (protection of corals, anchoring, beginner courses...)
    • Overfishing / fishing practices / trawling
      • But limited activities....
    • Disturbance of underwater life
concerns stakeholder17
Concerns Stakeholder
  • Environmental groups
    • WWF: SOS Campaign (next slide)
    • Overfishing / Fishing practices / Trawling
    • Healthy Marinelife, great biodiversity
    • Responsible waste disposal
    • Disappointment with government
  • Sai Kung residents
    • Amount of divers, traffic (limited concern...)
    • Money flow into SK / Income
      • Boats, Restaurants
wwf sos campaign
WWF - SOS Campaign
  • AFCD 2004: seeking 3 changes to Fisheries Protection Ordinance
  • WWF: That’s not enough
    • Fishing Licence Scheme
      • Commercial fishing  licence (outside MPAs)
      • WWF: Recreational fishing should also be covered
    • Fisheries Protection Areas
      • Port Shelter, Tolo Harbour and Channel
      • Bottom Trawling banned, other commercial fishing types allowed with permit (except AR)
      • WWF: FPAs should be no-take zones (no fishing all year round) – all Marine Parks, Port Shelter, Tolo Harbour and Channel, Long Harbour. Network of no-take zones. Also recreational fishing banned.
alternatives suggestions
Alternatives/Suggestions
  • Governmental restrictions
    • Toilets
      • Boats that accomodate > than x people  toilet
    • Annually Boat Check
      • Clean propeller, well tuned engines that are insulated from hull (noise pollution)
    • Quotas for certain spots during summer time
      • Carrying capacity, Corals need to rest (Port Shelter)
  • Stronger control
    • Fuel use (illegal fuel)
    • Disposal at SK harbour
alternatives suggestions20
Alternatives/Suggestions
  • MPAs or better No take zones
    • No or only licenced fishing
    • No anchoring
    • No trawling
  • Education
    • Why does Anchoring harm corals...
    • Suntan, Shampoo, Shower gel
    • Beginner courses on sandy bottom
    • Carrying capacity of Corals
    • Waste disposal Sai Kung – boats
benchmarking against other models
Benchmarking against other models
  • Israel – Eilat
    • Coral reserve
      • No trawling
      • No taking of corrals
    • Small patchy reef areas, similar in size to HK
    • >250 000 divers per year on all sites
    • High use sites show a decrease in coral cover
    • Carrying capacity at current types of use around 25,000 per year
      • Can be increased
benchmarking against other models22
Benchmarking against other models
  • Thailand marine parks
    • Fishing is allowed
      • No trawling
      • No explosives
    • Not allowed to take any “animals” out of MP
    • Environmental and physical carrying capacity reached
      • Congestion
      • Loss of marine life
    • Tourism important income
      • No quotas (e.g. for diving)
issues difficulties
Issues & Difficulties
  • Diving is no real problem in HK
    • Carrying capacity (except Port Shelter)
    • More harmful: Junk boats, waste, overfishing, trawling...
  • Government
    • Contradictionary role (restrictions might seem ridiculous to the diving community)
  • Fishermen
    • Community against MPAs and No Take Zones
    • Government: provide training, new jobs...
  • Junk Boat trips / Recreational activities
    • Will still go on
references
References
  • Interviews with: * Bunn’s Diving Center* Prodive Diving Center* Splash Diving Center* AFCD* WWF
  • http://dmoz.org/Recreation/Outdoors/Scuba_Diving/Underwater_Life/
  • http://www.padi.com/padi/common/dcnr1/results.aspx?country=HGKG
  • http://www.dive-centers.net/diving-hong_kong-33.html
  • http://oceanlink.island.net/oceanmatters/noise%20pollution.html
  • http://see-the-sea.org/topics/pollution/noise/noise_pollution.html
  • http://www.americanboating.org/clean.asp#How%20to%20Be%20a%20Clean%20Boater
  • http://www.wwf.org.hk/eng/conservation/sos/index.php
  • http://www.afcd.gov.hk/english/country/cou_vis/cou_vis_cou/cou_vis_cou.html
  • http://www.artificial-reef.net/
  • http://www.forest.go.th/nrco/english/mnpd.htm#Management