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PERANAN SI/TI DALAM ORGANISASI. Tujuan pembelajaran. Memahami konteks strategis SI/TI dalam organisasi Memahami perkembangan strategi SI/TI Memahami dampak strategi bisnis terhadap perkembangan strategi SI/TI Tantangan perencanaan SI/TI di Indonesia. Agenda.

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PERANAN SI/TI DALAM ORGANISASI


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    1. PERANAN SI/TI DALAM ORGANISASI

    2. Tujuan pembelajaran • Memahami konteks strategis SI/TI dalam organisasi • Memahami perkembangan strategi SI/TI • Memahami dampak strategi bisnis terhadap perkembangan strategi SI/TI • Tantangan perencanaan SI/TI di Indonesia

    3. Agenda • Konteks strategis SI/TI dalam organisasi • Evolusi SI dalam organisasi • Faktor kesuksesan sistem informasi strategis • Hubungan strategi SI/TI dan stsrategi bisnis • Strategi SI/TI • Strategi kompetitif dan implikasinya terhadap strategi SI/TI • Perencanaan strategis sistem informasi di indonesia : local point of view

    4. Konteks Strategis SI dalam Organisasi • Makin banyakproduktersediadalambentuk digital-Sehungga e-delivery melalui SI (berikancontoh e-product) • Makin banyakperdagangan (commerce) dilakukansecaraelektronik (e-commerce-menciptakanpeluangbaru, transaksi online) • Makin banyakaktivitas yang makinkompleks, memerlukanberbagai data daninformasi (data mining, enterprise information systems – ERP/enterprise resource planning) • Keterhubunganaktivitasbisnisdalamperusahaandanantarperusahaan (meningkatkanefisiensidanproduktivitas) • Kemajuanteknologi yang dapatmemproses data berskalabesardalamwaktu yang relatifsingkat (SPMB data)

    5. The Evolution of Information Systems • Year 1960 – Data processing (DP) era • Year 1970 – Management IS (MIS) era • Year 1980 – Strategic IS (SIS-EIS) era • Year 1990 – E-business & e-commerce era • Year 2000 – Enterprise Resource Planning era • Setiap era memiliki karakteristik SI yang berbeda

    6. Karakteristik Era Data Processing • Pemrosesan secara sentralisasi • Menggunakan multi-purpose Mainframe computer • Batch processing (Batch processing adalah suatu model pengolahan data, dengan menghimpun data terlebih dahulu, dan diatur pengelompokkan datanya dalam kelompok-kelompok yang disebut batch) • Penyimpanan Data: magnetic disk, tape • Bahasa Pemrograman: Cobol, Basic, etc. • Proses-proses berbasis otomasi informasi Apa sifat bisnis pada era DP?

    7. Karakteristik Era SIM • Mulai menggunakan minicomputer • Menggunakan berbagai aplikasi bisnis • Masih sentralisasi • Menggunakan model portofolio aplikasi hierakis berdasarkan stratifikasi kegiatan manajemen : • Perencanaan strategis • Kontrol manajemen • Kontrol operasional • Meningkatkan keefektifan manajemen dengan memenuhi kebutuhan informasinya untuk pengambilan keputusan- untuk membantu manajer Apa sifat bisnis era SIM?

    8. Karakteristik Era SIS • Mulaimenggunakan Personal Computer (PC) • Mulaimenggunakan office automation • Mulaimenggunakankapabilitas-kapabilitasbaru: flexible access dan decision support • Meningkatkankeunggulan/competitiveness denganmengubahsifatataucaramelaksanakanbisnis (yaituinvestasi SI/TI dapatmenjadisumberdaya yang competitive advantage) Apa sifat bisnis pada era SIS?

    9. SIS MIS DP Sales forecasting operating plans capacity planning, profit/earnings forecasts, business mix analysis, manpower planning, financial modeling Planning systems examples Sales analysis budgetary control, management accounting, inventory management, quality analysis, expense reporting, market research/statistics, WIP control, requirements planning, supplier analysis, etc. Control systems example Order entry, processing, tracking shipping documents, vehicle scheduling/loading, invoicing, sales and purchase ledgers, cost accounting, stock control, shop-floor scheduling, bill of materials, purchase orders, receiving, employee records, payroll, word processing Operational systems examples Early Views and Models of IS/IT in Organizations (Anthony, 65)

    10. Jenis SIS • SIS yang menghubungkan organisasi dengan pelanggan atau pemasoknya untuk berbagi informasi • SIS yang secara efektif mengintegrasikan penggunaan inforamsi di dalam value chain organisasi • SIS yang membuat organisasi mengembangkan produk atau jasa baru atau yang dikembangkan berdasarkan informasi • SIS yang menyediakan manajer informasi yang lebih baik bagi pengembangan strategi • Contoh : Tradenet, SABRE (American Airlines), Valuelink (Baxter Healthcare).

    11. Faktor Kesuksesan SIS • Berfokus pada lingkungan eksternal daripada internal, sebagai contoh : imager building • Berfokus pada menambah value daripada mengurangi biaya, contoh : e-ticket • Sharing manfaat/benefit secara internal maupun eksternal, contoh : ATM • Memahami pelanggan dan kebutuhannya, contoh : customized product • Business instead of technology driven innovation: i.e covering a wider customers • Incremental instead of total development: i.e web-based application • Menggunakan informasi yang diperoleh untuk mengembangkan bisnis, contoh : learning organization

    12. Trends in the evolution of business IS/IT (source: adapted from R.D. Galliers and E. Somogyi)

    13. Different views of strategic information systems

    14. The Relationship Between the Business, SIS, MIS, and DP Business Strategic Management Executive Management IS/IT Strategic Management Impact Analysis User Management IS Management User Operations Information Analysis Project and Computer Management Systems Design

    15. The relationship between business, IS and IT strategies

    16. Contoh Keterkaitan Strategi Bisnis, Strategi IS, dan Strategi IT Membuka akses ke potensial pelanggan di seluruh Indonesia Mengembangkan aplikasi berbasis Web Menggunakan teknologi informasi berbasis sistem terbuka agar bisa di view oleh berbagai platform

    17. An Applications Portfolio for the ‘Combined Era’ McFarlan ‘84

    18. Memilih Strategi SI? • Apakah masalah memerlukan solusi baru atau inovatif? • Creative strategy e.g. Brainstorming • Is the problem mechanistic? • Logical strategy e.g. Logical Thinking • Is the problem unclear & involve people? • Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) • Use common sense when choosing a problemsolving method.

    19. So… What’s an IS/IT Strategy? • IS/IT strategy is composed of two parts • IS component • IT component • IS strategy defines the organization’s requirement for information systems to support the overall strategy of the business • The IT strategy is outlining the vision of how the organization’s demand for information and systems will be supported by IT • It addresses the provision of ICT capabilities and resources and services such as IT operations, systems development and user support

    20. The Context of IS/IT Strategy (Sullivan, 1985) Internal organization pressures: demanding further distribution of IS/IT control High Diffusion: degree of decentrali- zation of IS/IT control in the organization Opportunistic Complex External competitive pressures: increasing the criticality of IS/IT to the business Backbone Traditional Low Low High Infusion-degree of dependence of IS/IT of the business

    21. Implications of Competitive Business Strategy to IS/IT Strategy • How can IS/IT affect the nature and value of the product or service and its life cycle? • Generate a new product or a new line of business • Enable products to be designed or delivered more quickly • Be used to add additional features or services to increase the product’s value

    22. Continued.. • How can IS/IT affect the demand for products and services, segments more effectively, extend them geographically, or provide new distribution channels to reach the market? • Enable to reach more appropriate customers • Enable to match our different products/services to customer appropriately • Enable the product/service to be distributed in new ways to the customers • Enable to get closer to the market-place rather than deal through intermediaries

    23. Continued.. • How can IS/IT affect the cost base of the key processes in the industry or change the balance in the trade-off between flexibility and standardization? • Enable the product/service to be produced more economically • Enable production and associated logistics to be integrated to produce greater flexibility of resource use • Enable a higher quality of product or service to be offered at a much lower cost than traditionally

    24. Examples of How IS/IT has affected the competitive forces in the airline industry

    25. Impact of Competitive Forces and Potential IS/IT Opportunities

    26. Why is IS/T Planning Important? • IT Strategy is the process of defining the strategic use of technology in an organization. • The IS/T Planning process ensures efficient and effective investment of IT to support the business • IT is More Critical to Corporate Success • The use of IT is increasingly pervasive • Enterprises are discovering that IT can influence the relative performance of most departments

    27. Indonesia and IS Planning • There is a tendency not to pay attention for ‘planning’ • The attitude extends to IS/T planning • Part of the problem is that there is no ‘tangible’ or ‘less realizable’ outcome resulting from IS/T planning • We see more Indonesian organizations conduct IT projects – not preceded by formal IS/T Planning

    28. Results of Lack of IS/T Planning • Failed of IS/T projects • We see IT projects which lacks direction, weak in scope, have little of no identification of Critical Success Factors. • Inefficient use of investment in IT • Bad name for IT professionals and due to failed IT implementations

    29. IS/IT Planning for the Indonesian • Need processes which are more facilitator-driven, higher involvement of consultants who has psychological and cultural sensitivity • Need processes which are a combination between verbal (direct) and in-direct interactions – to ensure that ideas and opinions are fully expressed

    30. IS/T Planning in Indonesian Organizations: Realities • Justification for auditing purposes • Idea often comes bottom up: hence the challenges • Do not believe in documentation: hence the approach is often less formal • Difficult to get buy-in from management who would rather see IT implementation projects • Who’s project is this: an IT department project?

    31. Trends in IS/T Planning • We will see more ‘formal’ IS/T Planning activities with increase of IS/T dominance as an integral part of business • IS/T Planning will need to be done faster, with the faster trend of technology development • Clear definition between business plan, IS/T planning and IT implementation will become more and more blurred as technology will continue to drive businesses stronger