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Mid-term Grades

Mid-term Grades

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Mid-term Grades

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  1. Mid-term Grades • A (79-90 pts; 88%-100%): 15% • B (68- 78 pts; 76%-87%): 8% • C (50-67 pts; 56%-67%): 21% • D (35-49 pts; 39%-55%): 44% • F (0 - 34 pts; 0%- 38%): 13%

  2. 1. Discuss the transactional model as it relates to human development • Bidirectionality of structure and function • Developmental systems model; epigenesis: • Genetic activity (DNA <-> RNA <-> proteins) <-> structural maturation <-> function, activity • Zeskind & Ramey experiment; Gottlieb’s duck experiment; Caspi’s MAOA experiment

  3. 2. Discuss the basic principles of an evolutionary approach to human development • natural selection (define) • Evolution works at all stages of development, but not necessarily equally (grandmother hypothesis) • Evolutionary psychology hasan emphasis on adaptationist thinking, which stresses the function of a behavior or trait (pregnancy sickness). • Evolutionary developmental psychology (defined) • Deferred and ontogenetic adaptations (examples)

  4. 3. What are the basic assumptions and principles of Piaget’s theory? • Stage theorists (qualitative differences; invariant order) • Structures (schemes) (structuralism) • Intrinsic activity (constructivism) • Organization • Adaptation Assimilation Accommodation • Equilibration

  5. What is Language? • Arbitrariness • Productivity • Language is creative, or generative • Semanticity • Can represent objects, actions, events, & ideas symbolically • Displacement • Past, future, different location • Duality • Phonology • Syntax • semantics

  6. Describing Children’s Language Development • Receptive language > productive language • Early language is telegraphic • Phonological development • Babbling • Morphological development • Morpheme • Free morphemes vs. bound morphemes • Mean length of utterance (MLU) • Overregularization • Wug test

  7. Syntactic Development • Negatives • Questions • Passives • Relating events in sentences

  8. Semantic Development • Word spurt productive vocabulary • Productive vocabulary: 22-37 mos. • Receptive vocabulary: 12-17 mos. • Constraints on word learning • Whole-object assmption • Taxonomic assumption • Mutual exclusivity assumption • Overextentions • Underextensions

  9. Nativist Perspective on Language Development • Noam Chomsky • Surface vs.deep structure • Generative grammar • Language acquisition device (LAD) • Universal Grammar

  10. Eric Lenneberg • Language is • Species specific • Species uniform • Difficult to retard • Develops in a regular sequence • Has specific anatomical structures • Associated with genetically-related disabilities

  11. Universal Grammar • All languages have: • Extensive vocabularies divided into different parts-of-speech categories • Words organized into phrases following similar rule structure (X-bar system) • All permit movement of grammatical categories • All use suffixes and prefixes

  12. Is there a critical period for learning language? • Social deprivation (feral children) • Second-language learning • Johnson & Newport: proficiency in English as function of age of arrival in U.S. • First-language learning of deaf people • Newport: Proficiency in ASL as function of age of exposure • Recovery of function after brain damage

  13. Social-Interactionist Perspectives of Language Development • Social-pragmatic view: “Children’s initial skills of linguistic communication are a natural outgrowth of their emerging understanding of other persons as intentional agents” (Carpenter et al., 1998)

  14. Child-Directed Speech • AKA: infant-directed speech (IDS); motherese; parentese • Language acquisition support system (LASS, Bruner) • Prosodic features of IDS • Higher acoustic frequency • Wider range of frequencies • Greater incidence of rising countours • Short, grammatical sentences

  15. Child-Directed Speech • Used across cultures (in varying degrees) • Infants more attentive to adults using IDS as opposed to adult-directed (A-D)speech (Cooper & Aslin, 1990; 1994) • Mothers of deaf children use exaggerated signs to their infants ad infants are more attentive to I-D signs than A-D signs (Masataka, 1998) • Infants can discriminate sounds better in I-D than A-D speech (Trehub et al., 1993) • I-D speech used to regulate infant’s behavior and emotions (Fernald, 1992)

  16. Approaches to the Study of Intelligence • Intelligence is “the mental activities necessary for adaptation to, as well as shaping and selecting of, any environmental context. . . (I)ntelligence is not just reactive to the environment but also active in forming it. It offers people an opportunity to respond flexibly to challenging situations” (Sternberg, 1997)

  17. The Psychometric Approach to the Study of Intelligence • Psychometric theories of intelligence have as their basis a belief that intelligence can be described in terms of mental factors and that tests can be constructed that reveal individual differences in the factors that underlie mental performance. • Factors are related mental skills that (presumably) affect thinking in a wide range of situations.

  18. Factor analysis • Vocabulary • Reading comprehension • Story completion • Verbal analogies • Verbal factor • 3-D rotation • Maze learning • Form-board performance • Spatial factor

  19. How many factors of intelligence are there? • Spearman’s g – general intelligence • Guilford’s structure-of-the-intellect model – 180 • Raymond Cattell’s theory which recognizes g and two second-level factors: • fluid intelligence: biologically determined and is reflected in tests of memory span and most tests of spatial thinking • crystallized intelligence: best reflected in tests of verbal comprehension or social relations, skills that depend more highly on cultural context and experience

  20. IQ Tests • Stanford-Binet • Wechsler scales

  21. Wechsler scales • WPPSI (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence) • WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) • WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale)

  22. Verbal IQ • Information • Similarities • Arithmetic • Vocabulary • Comprehension • Digit Span (optional)

  23. Performance IQ • Picture Completion • Coding • Picture Arrangement • Block Design • Object Assembly • Symbol Search • Mazes (optional)

  24. Example from the Raven Progressive Matricies Test

  25. The Adult • Strong relationships between • IQ and occupational prestige • IQ and job performance • IQ and good health/longevity • IQ decline by age 80 (longitudinal studies • C-S studies show cohort effects • Fluid IQ peaks at about age 24 • Crystallized (verbal)unchanged until 80’s

  26. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence • Contextual subtheory • Adaptation • Selection • Shaping • Cultural relativism • Experiental subtheory • The ability to deal with novelty and the degree to which processing is automtized. • The job of the child in development is to “render the novel familiar” (Rheingold) • Componential subtheory • Metacomponents • Performance components • Knowledge-acquisition components

  27. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

  28. Criteria for Intelligence • Potential isolation by brain damage • The existence of savants and prodigies • An identifiable core operation or set of operations • A distinctive developmental history, along with a definable set of expert end-state performances • An evolutionary history and evolutionary plausibility • Support from experimental psychological tasks and from psychometric findings • Susceptibility to encoding in a system

  29. Infancy: The Emerging Self • First 6 months: Discover physical self • Joint attention – 9 months • Difference in perceptions can be shared • Self-recognition – 18 months • Categorical self (age, sex) - 18 – 24 months • Based on cognitive development • Requires social experience • The looking-glass self: a “reflection”

  30. Emotional Development • Primary Emotions • Emerge during first year of life • distress, disgust, interest, surprise, contentment, joy, anger, sadness, fear • Secondary (self-conscious) emotions • Emerge during second year of life and depend on self-awareness and symbolic representation • shame, embarrassment, coyness, shyness, empathy, guilt, jealousy, envy, pride, contempt

  31. Milestones in emotional development: expression, recognition, understanding and self-regulation Emotional expression • 1st year: Primary Emotions • - at birth: distress, interest, disgust • - about 1-3 months: joy • - about 3-6 months: anger, sadness, surprise • - about 6-8 months: fear • 2nd year: Secondary (Self-conscious) Emotions • - about 18-24 months: empathy, envy (jealousy), • - about 30-36 months: pride, guilt, shame, hubris

  32. Emotional recognition • - about 3 months: sensitivity to abrupt emotional caregiver changes • - about 6 months: (implicit) recognition of all basic emotions • - about 12 months: social referencing (modeling own emotional reactions on the basis of the recognition of other people’s emotional reactions)

  33. Emotional understanding • -about 3-5 years old: Understanding important public aspects of emotions • - (explicit) recognition and naming of emotional expressions • - how external causes affect others’ emotions • - the impact of reminders on emotions • -about 7 years old: Understanding the mentalistic nature of emotions • - the role of desire and belief in emotions • - the discrepancy between expressed and felt emotions • -about 9-11 years old: Understanding complexity of individual emotional behavior • - the mixed nature of emotions • - the relation between morality and emotions • - the role of cognition in emotional regulation

  34. Emotional self-regulation • - about 1st year: ability to regulate some disturbing input • - about 3rd year: ability to hide real emotions • - about 5-11 years: increasing ability to self-regulate emotional states

  35. Temperament • Seen in infancy • Genetically based • Tendencies to respond in predictable ways • Building blocks of personality • Goodness of fit (Thomas & Chess) • Parenting techniques • Learning to interpret cues • Sensitive responding

  36. Gender Differences • Verbal: Females slightly higher • Spatial: Males higher • Math: Males highest and lowest • Aggression and riskiness: males • Compliant, tactful, cooperative: females • Nurturant, empathic, anxious: females • Play style • Interest in infants • Vulnerability: males

  37. Hunting-gatherering hypothesis and the origin of sex differences in spatial cognition: Silverman & Eals • Hunting (male) fostered eye-hand coordination, better navigation skills, mental rotation. • Gathering (female) fostered enhanced object-location memory