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Age of the Enlightenment

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  1. Age of the Enlightenment

  2. Rational • Philosophes • Popular Sovereignty • Enlightened despotism • Enlightenment • Denis Diderot • Baron de Montesquieu • Voltaire • Rousseau • Mary Wollstonecraft • Federal System of government • Executive • Legislative • Judicial • Stamp Act • King George III • Lord North

  3. Patriots • Loyalists • Thomas Jefferson • George Washington • Benjamin Franklin • Articles of Confederation • Bill of Rights

  4. Economic Improvement Political Reform Movement of People and Ideas Advocated: Agricultural improvement, commercial society, expanding consumption, challenge traditional social and economic practices Influenced: Scientific Revolution and Traditional intellectual and theological authority.

  5. Influences of Enlightenment Newton-law of universal gravitation Nature was rational-society too should be Study nature directly-w/o metaphysics John Locke-Tabula Rasa-Experience shapes character Print Culture-books, journals, newspapers Urban centers Secular-novels Coffeehouses Public opinion High and Low literary culture

  6. Philosophes Rules of reason, criticism, and common sense Writers and critics Challenged aristocratic privilege Reform religion, political thought, society, government, and economy-Human Liberty

  7. Enlightenment and Religion Church hindered the pursuit of a rational life Church and Old Regime Deism: Religion and Reason-nature is rational God-is rational Life after death

  8. Voltaire Attacked religious persecution and advocated toleration Candide “Crush the Infamous Thing”

  9. Adam Smith Wealth of Nations Economic Liberty Encourage economic growth-interests Laissez-faire-limit role of gov’t. Four stage theory: Hunting and gathering Herding Agricultural Commercial

  10. People to be prosperous Rousseau-good, even though poor

  11. Rousseau Social Contract “All men are born free, but everywhere in chains”. Independent individuals-NEGATIVE!!! Personal freedom-loyal member in society Freedom-obedience to law Democratic participation Being Good

  12. Hated the world and society Challenged the social fabric-material and intellectual progress What constitutes the good life? Personal freedom and also being a part of society Many questioned his critique of material world

  13. Encyclopedia-Denis Diderot Advanced critical ideas-religion, government and philosophy Secularize learning Harnessing resources of the earth and in living at peace with one’s fellow humans.

  14. What is the Enlightenment? Influenced…. Philosophers, etc…

  15. Montesquieu Spirit of Laws Not one Political system Monarchial government Division of power Checks and Balances

  16. Women in Enlightenment Salons Not feminists; Traditional roles Montesquieu-Women are not naturally inferior Rousseau-Educated for a position subordinate to men Mary Wollstonecraft-A Vindication of the Rights of Women Sensual slaves Impede Progress of all Humanity

  17. Islam in Enlightenment thought Muhammad a false prophet Muhammedanism-divine Voltaire: Islam-fanatical Many Europeans-empathetic and expressing fairness

  18. Jewish Thinkers Spinoza God is not a distinct personality-everything in universe Organized religion led people away from scripture Mendelssohn Jewish Socrates Modern Jew life Judaism and Enlightenment Ideals Religious toleration within and Society

  19. Fredrick the Great Prussia Servant to the state Protected nobles Religious Toleration Joseph II Austria Religious Toleration Economic reform

  20. Catherine the Great Russia Power to the nobility Economic growth Territorial expansion

  21. FRQ Analyze the policies of Fredrick the Great and Joseph the II of Austria