DISCIPLINARY LITERACY: READING STRATEGIES IN CTE AND OTHER SUBJECTS
Did you know… • You Tube Video: DID YOU KNOW READING CRISIS • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=96zT2l8QKb8 • HO - Jigsaw and discuss reading “CTE’s role in Adolescent Literacy”
Readicide – “The systematic killing of the love of reading…” • Requiring students to read difficult texts without proper instructional support; • Insisting that students focus solely on academic texts; • Ignoring the importance of developing recreational reading; • Losing sight of authentic instruction
Review: COMMON VOCABULARY • Text: Anything students are asked to read, including articles, internet sites, books, magazines, journals, etc. • Authentic reading and writing: the reading and writing connected to a particular discipline and the real world • Disciplinary Literacy: the focus on the types of reading, writing, thinking, speaking and listening in various disciplines. • Common Core State Standards (CCSS): national standards adopted by WI on June 2, 2010.
the ELA CCSS standards See Resource: Literacy in All Subjects Page 62 • ELA 6-12 grade CCSS are specifically written for literacy in history/social studies, science and TECHNICAL SUBJECTS(p. 62 & 64) • They indicate key READING, WRITING, Speaking/Listening & Language skills • Read through the CCSS reading standards. Discussion: What’s the emphasis?
CCSS Publisher Criteria/ Priority Areas Divide into 4 groups: Summarize the highlights & describe how you use them in your classroom. I. Text Selection and Complexity II. Questions and Tasks III. Academic (and Domain-Specific) Vocabulary IV. Writing to Sources and Research See handout, “ELA Publisher’s Criteria”
Begin with the Text Make a list of authentic texts used in your discipline. • Teach “THE REAL THING” • Select AUTHENTIC TEXTS used in your field • Authentic Texts increase students' motivation for learning, and expose them to 'real' language and problems in the field of study.
Text Resources In “LIKE GROUPS”, SELECT 1 OF THE FOLLOWING SITES (OR YOUR OWN) & FIND AN AUTHENTIC TEXT RESOURCE. PREPARE TO REPORT BACK TO GROUP. • BadgerLink (www.badgerlink.net/) (Create Login) • “Article of the Week” (www.kellygallagher.org) • Time Magazine (http://www.time.com/time/) • The Week Magazine (http://theweek.com/) • The New Yorker (http://www.newyorker.com/) • The New York Times (http://www.nytimes.com/)
It’s More Than Reading—it’s Thinking! You can find a list of Kelly Gallagher’s “Articles of the Week” at http://kellygallagher.org/resources/articles.html. There are many articles relevant to multiple disciplines. We will use several today to practice classroom strategies.
Get Students Thinking • Students must INTERACT with the text, not just passively read and answer questions • Are QUESTIONS you ask fact based/simple recall, or do they advance up “Revised” Bloom’s Taxonomy to get students thinking at higher levels? (See Revised Blooms HO & Question Stems) • Are your student tasks useful, authentic, and rigorous? Are they tasks experts in your field do on a regular basis?
Support Struggling Readers by… Tell your neighbor something you are good at doing… How did you improve your skills? • Teach one text with support (Model) • Most textbooks are written at least 2 grade levels above where they are taught. • Offer choices of text that relate to the same topic • Text Selection is extremely important. Differing the levels of the text honors ALL learners. Select high, medium, and low-leveled reading material. • The Lexile framework is a common leveling formula to guide teachers with text selection. (Flesch-Kincaid grade level formula may also be used for an informal tool.)
What is a Lexile? • Measurement of text difficulty • Primarily based on word syllables & sentence length, Lexiles are assigned numbers to text than can be compared to grade level expectations • Students are expected to be at 1200L when they graduate • www.lexile.com
Grade Level Equivalents Use the higher Lexile ranges for alignment with the CCSS.
Harvard’s “Self Help Guide” Skim through the Harvard document to learn about these six reading habits. Now compare these habits with those of YOUR students. “Interrogating Texts: 6 Reading Habits to Develop in Your First Year at Harvard”: • Previewing • Annotating • Outline, Analyze, Summarize • Look for repetitions and patterns • Contextualize • Compare & Contrast
Comprehension Processes for Proficient Readers Doug Buehl, 2009 Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning SEE PAGES 4-6 1. Making Connections to Prior Knowledge 2. Generating Questions 3. Creating Mental Images 4. Making Inferences 5. Determining Importance 6. Synthesizing 7. Monitoring Reading /Fix Up Strategies
1. Making Connections to Prior Knowledge • Prompting students to activate what they already know about a topic, subject and text structures are called “frontloading” activities • “Frontloading” activities are especially important for struggling readers to help them in understanding an author’s message. (Ch.2, p.15) • Anticipation Guide p.45, K-W-L p. 107, Quick Writes p.141
Frontloading… “Cleaning Up the Trash in Space” Page 45 (Anticipation Guide p.45: “Frontloads”/Forecasts major ideas & activates thoughts) • Answer the following statements. • Check each you agree with. • Talk to a partner & discuss responses. • Read article • Determine how thinking has changed
Making connections… “Paying Kids to Come to Class” Page 107 (K-W-L/K-W-H-L helps activate prior knowledge, generate questions & organize what they learn) • Use K-W-L chart – What do you knowabout the trash in space? (If there’s no knowledge, preview text subtitles, headings, etc. ) • What do you want to know? (Text Frames p.23-24) • Read the article. (Using a highlighter, note the words, phrases, or portions of the article that you connect to or are confusing to you) • Return back to K-W-L chart – Note true/false in K, Add to W • Complete the last column – What did I learn http:// www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/graphic_org/kwl
2. Generating Questions • Self questioning is an attribute of independent learners. Students need to be taught to pose good questions themselves rather than finding answers to questions others pose. • Readers use questions to focus their attention on ideas and events, and then generate new questions. B/D/A Questioning Chart p.52, Text Frames p.22, Questions related to revised Bloom’s taxonomy
Generate Questions… “New Obesity Campaigns” Page 52 (B/D/A Questioning Charts prompt students to develop their own questions before, during and after reading.) • Use B/D/A Questioning Chart – Hand out the article – but do not read it yet…skim the content to generate some questions…BEFORE you read…What are you wondering about the topic of “Obesity Campaigns”? • Read the article. Generate some questions DURING reading and put them on the chart. • Meet with a partner and share questions generated while reading. • Place questions the reader still has AFTER reading in the last column of the chart. (These questions may be used for future assignments.)
3. Creating Mental Images • Proficient readers use visual, auditory and other sensory connections to bring the text to life. • Teaching students to create mental images helps them visualize what is being suggested, connects the reading to background knowledge, assists in processing information, and enhances vocabulary. Mental Imaging is a form of inference. Mind Mapping p.118
Mind Mapping– 5 Myths About america’s Decline • Select the key ideas, concepts or important vocabulary from a reading that you want students to focus on. (Good for introducing new material) • Select a mind map (graphic organizer) to help students show relationships and connect ideas. • Model with the class the completion of a mind map together. (GREAT strategy for visual learners) • Use the mind map while completing an assigned reading as a guide to comprehension • Share with a partner Page 118
4. Making Inferences • Inference is the heart of the comprehension process. When readers apply the skills of inference and prediction, they are able to reach a deeper meaning of a reading and have a greater appreciation of the writing. • Students read the text, put together the information presented, consider their own experiences, and make an assumption or “educated” guess based on the data presented. Discussion Web- Page 76
The Custodian – Discussion Web • The discussion web helps students see that there are 2 sides to every question. • “Front load” a reading and then have students read the assignment. • Introduce a focus question for discussion • Have students work in pairs to develop opposing sides of the question. Join students into groups of 4 to collaborate on web. • Group presents their conclusions • Students the determine their stand on the question PAGE 76
5. Determining Importance • Determining importance is especially critical when reading informational or nonfiction materials. • Proficient readier striver to differentiate key ideas, themes and information from details so that they are not overwhelmed by facts. • Identify…what does the author want me to understand? Annotated Text and Text Coding p. 180
ANNOTATING TEXT • The goal of annotating text is to facilitate reading comprehension. • Read Article: “A Legacy of Illnesses from 9/11” • Show evidence of your thinking by marking the article—write questions, comments, A-ha’s in the margins and on text.
Legacy of Illnesses – Text Coding • Text Coding is an annotated system that helps track thinking while reading. • Teachers model “talking to themselves” /”think aloud” as they code the reading. • Text coding involves highlighting or marking a spot in a paragraph of interest and then placing a symbol by it to indicate thinking. • Students can design their own codes: • ? = Question X – Not Expected • ! = New Idea = Need to explore • ** = Important Page 180
6. Synthesizing Understanding • Synthesizing allows a student to make a generalization, create an interpretation, draw a conclusion & develop an explanation. • A necessary step to summarizing is asking students to personalize the information - retell, restate and paraphrase “in their own words”. 3-Minute Pause Page 121
For Profit Colleges- 3 Minute Pause • 3-minute Pause is like creating a “time out” for the reader…think of it like “huddle in a game”, “a time out”, or “Saving a computer document”… • Read a text • Teacher or students can identify the focus of the “time out”…i.e.: Partner A – Summarize text, identify important points, generate questions, state something interesting, tell what you learned (3 min) • Partner B – comments for 1 min • Roles Reverse Page 121
7. Monitoring Reading /Fix Up Strategies • Readers need to monitor themselves and determine when they need to apply strategies that will help them have an understanding of the text. • If readers cannot remember what they read, can’t answer clarifying questions, and cannot summarize the reading…they need assistance and fix-up strategies.
Strategies from the CCSS Authors • Split grade-level reading passages into smaller, meaningful chunks • Reducethe total number of passages read and/or the length of the passages. • Locate “hint boxes” near items that remind students of definitions or appropriate/useful strategies (e.g., “go back and re-read this section before you answer”). • Reduce language load/simplify language in the question stems. • Substitute more familiar words in question stems and distracters if that is not the vocabulary /construct being assessed.
Strategies from the CCSS Authors • Provide consistent icons and phrasing of question stems throughout the test. • Use bulleted lists and increased white space in place of longer dense texts. • Color coding to help students to organize information. • Provide sub-questions to break up multi-step tasks. • Place inferential and analysis questions after literal questions have been asked. • Provide graphic organizers to help students organize information before answering more complex questions
ACTE Resources & Others • ACTE Videos, power points and handouts on CTE and Literacy with Linda Moyer: http://www.acteonline.org/lit.aspx?id=17260&terms=cte%20and%20literacy • How Do You Expect Me to Teach Reading & Writing?http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/cte/publications/profdev/literacy/handbook.pdf. • CTE’s Role in Adolescent Literacy http://www.acteonline.org/uploadedFiles/Publications_and_Online_Media/files/Literacy_Issue_Brief.pdf
Next Steps… • Reflecting back on one unit/ lesson you teach… • 1. Select 2 reading strategies modeled today (or others) • 2. Identify how you would use the strategy in your classroom • 3. Explain how it would increase reading comprehension for your students. http://tiny.cc/2tcchw