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REACTION TO TRAUMA: MYTHS AND REALITIES PowerPoint Presentation
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REACTION TO TRAUMA: MYTHS AND REALITIES

REACTION TO TRAUMA: MYTHS AND REALITIES

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REACTION TO TRAUMA: MYTHS AND REALITIES

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  1. REACTION TO TRAUMA: MYTHS AND REALITIES Professor David A Alexander MA(Hons), C.Psychol, PhD, FBPS, FRSM, (Hon) FRCPsych Aberdeen Centre for Trauma Research

  2. “Oh, give me a home, where the buffalo roam...”

  3. “Bummer of a birthmark, Hal."

  4. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Primary features are: • experience of an abnormally stressful event • persistent re-experiencing of that event • persistent avoidance of reminders • persistent hyperarousal (hypervigilance) NB: Symptoms must have lasted for 1 month

  5. ‘The trauma epidemic’ • 10% of all deaths in UK • leading cause of death in young people • for every death two permanently disabled • high economic cost

  6. How common are post-traumatic conditions? Best estimates (Alexander, 1997) • Burn injuries - 45% • RTAs - 18% • Industrial accidents - 18% • Major disasters - 50% • Rape - 50%

  7. HOW DO PEOPLE REACT AFTER TRAUMA?

  8. Individual reactions Cognitive Emotional Social Physical

  9. Individual reactions Emotional Numbness Fear Depression Guilt Anger Helpless

  10. Individual reactions Cognitive False beliefs Loss of faith Memory/ concentration Flashbacks

  11. Individual reactions Social Avoidance Irritability Withdrawal

  12. Individual reactions Physical Hyperarousal Sleep problems

  13. At risk factors include... Trauma • sudden, unexpected • man made • (perceived) threat to life • extended exposure • multiple deaths/mutilations Survivor • previous trauma • psychiatric history • severity (meaning) of injury • lack of support • other stresses

  14. HAVE YOU SOMEONE TO GO HOME TO...?

  15. Yes, but... • eviction • leukaemic daughter • redundancy • physical ill health • pending divorce

  16. A team of trained counsellors is standing by…

  17. “WATCHFUL WAITING”

  18. “Honeymoon” Impact Warning Enhanced Community and Individual Adjustment Disillusionment Level of Adjustment Previous Level of Adjustment “Second Disaster” Time Weeks Months (Raphael [1986] “When disaster strikes”) Phases of Response to Major Trauma