Experimental fruit and berry processing in Latvia D.Seglina, Dr.sc.ing. firstname.lastname@example.org Polli, 2009
Latvian Agro-Food Industry • Food industry is the largest processing industry in Latvia, providing almost 20% of the total industrial added value. • However, the share of food industry in the processing industry has a tendency to decrease, as chemical industry and production of electrical appliances has increased over last year. • Almost 75 % of food production is consumed in the local market, and the rest is exported mostly to Russian Federation, Lithuania, Estonia and other European Union countries.
Main Problems – Reasons for Co-operation • Only 19% of Latvian enterprises are involved in the process of innovations (introduction of new products or implementation of new means of production). This indicator is much lower than that of the EU Member States. • Although there are several high-ranked research centres in Latvia only few Latvian enterprises initiate cooperation with them by ordering a research or a development of a new technology. • Thus in the meantime scientists initiate research by themselves and organise the transfer of the new products to Latvian enterprises (by means of direct contact making, as well as via mass media). • The technology commercialisation system in Latvia is weak: Latvia lies at the bottom of the European countries’ ranking with regard to the patents issued to its residents.
Latvia University of Agriculturewww.llu.lv Faculty of Food Technology – the main education centre for preparing specialists in Food Science and technology • 3 departments- Chemistry; Food Technology; Nutrition; • Study programmes –Food science and technology onBachelor, Master’s, andDoctorlevel; • Total amount of full and part time students – 950; • Teaching staff– 42 persons; • 29 leading scientists: Main research directions : • Food quality and safety; • New types of food products (functionality); • Packaging of food products.
Latvia University of Agriculture Research Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine "Sigra" www.sigra.lv Main research direction– the qualitative and safety food products from animal raw materials.
University of Latviawww.lu.lv Faculty of Biology, Faculty of Chemistry • Main research directions– • Research in Functional Foods; • Food Safety; • Methods of Food Analyses.
Latvia State Institute of Fruit – Growing www.lvai.lv The leading scientific institution also in fruit and berry processing
General information At present (January 1, 2009) the Institute’s regular staff are 58 people, 47 of them are full-time researchers and technicians, including: • doctors of sciences – 13 (int.al.4 doctors of sciences work part-time) • masters of sciences – 5 ( int.al. 4 Ph students) The age of 12 researchers is below 35.
General information Latvia State Institute of Fruit-Growing has five research units:
General information The main tasks of the Institute are: • To provide scientific background and expertise for the working-out and implementation of the development policy in fruit-growing . • To work out recommendations for environment-friendly (integrated and organic) technologies in fruit growing, processing and storage. • To develop models for commercial orchard management in different regions of Latvia. • To perform breeding of fruit and berry varieties suitable to Latvian climate. • To provide maintenance and sustainable use of fruit, berry and lilac genetic resources. • To work out scientific background for a system of the production of healthy planting material in Latvia. • Practical basis for Bachelor, Master and Doctor research at the University of Latvia, faculty of Biology and Chemistry, and Latvia University of Agriculture, faculties of Agriculture and Food Technology.
Fruit breeding and genetic resources The Institute holds vast collections of fruit crop cultivars and selections. The rich collection material serves for breeding aims, as well as a source for genetical resources collections, which include numerous varieties and landraces of Latvian origin. The main goal of fruit crop breeding at the Institute is to develop new varieties, which are: • adapted for cultivation in Latvia, • with fruit quality suitable for commercial growing, • resistant to diseases, • ripen during an extended period of time, • have tree or shrub habit easy for training and cultivation.
Breeder’s rights in Latvia are protected for: • Apple varieties: 'Ausma', 'Ilga', 'Magone', ‘Agra’, ‘Atmoda’, ‘Ella’, ‘Olga’, 'Baiba', 'Dace', 'Edite', 'Gita', 'Ligita', 'Roberts‘; • Sweet cherry varieties: ‘Aija’, ‘Aleksandrs’, ‘Indra’, ‘Jānis’ • Apricot varieties ‘Daiga’, ‘Lāsma’, ‘Velta’ • Plum varieties:‘Agrā Dzeltenā’, ‘Inese’, ‘Minjona’, ‘Zemgale’ • Raspberry cultivars:‘Arta’, ‘Dita’, ‘Ina’, ‘Ivars’, ‘Līna’ • Pear cultivars: ‘Jumurda’, ‘Paulina’ Registered grapes cultivars in Latvia and Sweden: ‘Zilga’, ‘Guna’, ‘Supaga’, ‘Sukribe’, ‘Veldze’.
Research in growing techniques • Evaluation and screening of the suitability of fruit crop varieties for different training systems and tree shapes, different time of training. • Development of economically justified, • environment-friendly (integrated and • organic) technologies for growing of • more popular fruit crops and cultivars • in different soil and climate conditions • Working out growing techniques for novel fruit crops.
Research of fruit and berry processingand storage • Activities of the Institute in fruit processing research: • Create new knowledge and products. • Develop innovative technologies. Thus promoting sustainable development and competitiveness of the fruit production in Latvia.
Research of fruit and berry processingand storage Unit of Experimental Fruit and Berry Processing at the Institute was started in 1997. At present it has modern equipment suited for small experimental lots. It consists of: • Laboratory of the Experimental Fruit and Berry Processing; • Laboratory of biochemistry; • Deep-freezing chamber with a fast-freezer; • Fruit storage complex; • ULO type storage experimental chambers.
Laboratory of Experimental Fruit and Berry Processing: The aim is - evaluation of the suitability of fruit and berry cultivars for different ways of processing (juice, puree, jam, jelly, drying, freezing) and the development of new products. Main activities: - work on traditional crops – apples, pears, plums, cherries, currants, gooseberries, raspberries; - research with untraditional crops e.g. large-fruited cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon), seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica).
Laboratory of biochemistry The studies of fruit and berry biochemical content are performed at the laboratory since 1979. Chemical composition of fruit, berries and their processed products, biologically active compounds and technological properties are investigated at the laboratory.
Laboratory of fruit storage research: • Research of fruit and berry storage is performed in various storage regimes suitable for commercial production: • In cool chambers with regulated temperature regimes; • In controlled atmosphere chambers with regulated CO2 and O2 gas regimes (ULO – Ultra Low Oxygen); • In freezers (-18 °C).
Research projects related to processing • Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica) – a new European fruit crop for production of novel juice, flavour and fibre –Framework 4 FAIR5 – PL – 3894 (1998 – 2001). • Selecting biochemically high-quality fruit breeds for funcionally active food-stuff production (market oriented project) (1998 – 2000). • Investigations of the genetic resources of some horticultural and herbal crops for functional food production (bilateral project with the Gardening Institut of Sweden (1999 – 2003).
Research projects related to processing • Selecting and augmenting fruit breeds for production of healthy and immunisation-system-strengthening products (Market oriented project) (2000 – 2002). • Development of fruit and berry products containing antioxidants for diversifying of Latvian market” (Market oriented project) (2002 – 2004). • Development of sea buckthorn processing products, testing of their functional properties for improving of human health (Market oriented project) (2005 – 2007).
Research projects related to processing • EUREKA E! 3490 “Functional food ingredients from plant products” (2006 - 2008). • EU COST project “Euroberry Research: From Genomics to Sustainable production, Quality and Health” (2004 - 2009). • National program of the EU structural funds “Modernization of the Experimental Fruit and Berry Processing Centre and storage facilities” (2004 - 2005). • EU structural funds“Possibilities of raising the qualification of unemployed young people in the work market of fruit growing and related fields” (2007 - 2008). • State Research program project “High-value Latvian berries: from cultivars to healthy, safe and quality product” (2006 - 2009).
Results of research projects linked with processing 2 patents registered by the Institute – • “A method of obtaining candied Japanese quince fruits” (Nr. 12779, registered 20.04.2002), • “A method of obtaining large-fruited cranberry candied fruits” (Nr.13468, registered 20.11.2006).
Transfer of technologies developed at the Institute to producers • The Institute organizes or participates in seminars and exhibitions in Dobele, Riga and other towns in Latvia, where experimental fruit and berry processed products are presented. • Scientists provide consultations both at the Institute and at processing enterprises. • Scientists are seeking contacts with producers for testing and introducing new products. • Enterprises come to researchers with their ideas about development of new technologies or products. • Every year Farmers Days take place at Dobele in March and August, collecting numerous visitors. • The Latvian Food Technology Platform (LPTP) has been formed, inside which active cooperation is taking place between producers, researchers, lawmakers and consumers. LPTP is an official member of EU Technology Platform “Food for life”.
Results of research projects linked with processing Patented technologies and products have been testedfor commercial production at several enterprises: J/S “LAIMA”(Latvia) and“Rūta” Ltd (Lithuania)- additive to candies. J/S “Rīgas Piensaimnieks” – additive to sweet cheese snacks. “Bona Dea” Ltd – dragees in sugar and chocolate. “Līvas” Ltd-for production of sparkling drink for children. “Lāči” Ltd – for production of bread and pastries.
Results of research projects linked with processing • Work with sea buckthorn fruits for the development of a waste-free technology and introduction of its products : • Sea buckthornmarcis sold to “Duo AG” Ltd, who produce sea buckthorn oil using their own patented technology. • Sea buckthorn juice; • “O Rika” Ltd; • “Satori Alfa” Ltd; • “Dienvidi Plus” Ltd.
Results of research projects linked with processing • Development and introduction of waste-free technologies for raspberry processing: • For production of fiber products from berry marc - „Aptiekas Produkcija” Ltd; • Use of juice for production of food enricheners–balsams-“Silvanols” Ltd.
Results of research projects linked with processing • At present technologies for producing candied fruits are developed for cherries, gooseberries, blackcurrants and pumpkins. • Experimental testing of these products is done at several enterprises.
Challenges Introduction of innovative processing technologies in the production process • Development of specific, healthy, high quality products in order to enter the saturated food market • Export of products from non-traditional fruit crops (seabuckthorns, Japanese quince, high blueberries, American cranberries, etc.),which can be produced by small, specialized processing enterprises.