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Michael O’Toole, PhD Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. Behavioral Safety 501 ASSE Central Florida Chapter June 7, 2010. Behavior Based Safety Where did it come from? Origins in psychology B.F. Skinner/Watson/Thorndike. Behavioral Safety 501. ABC’s of Success. A NTECEDENTS. B EHAVIORS.

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behavioral safety 501

Behavior Based Safety

    • Where did it come from?
    • Origins in psychology
      • B.F. Skinner/Watson/Thorndike

Michael O'Toole, PhD

Behavioral Safety 501
abc s of success
ABC’s of Success

ANTECEDENTS

BEHAVIORS

CONSEQUENCES

What triggers or

causes behaviors?

What it is that the

employee does

What follows the

behavior?

Positive+

Negative-

MEASUREMENT & FEEDBACK

HOW AM I DOING?

behavioral safety 5011

Behavioral Safety

    • Any number of approaches that focus on the behaviors of employees
      • Identify and correct unsafe/at-risk behaviors before an incident
      • All attempt to use some form of observation of employee job performance
        • Supervisors
        • Peers
        • Self

Michael O'Toole, PhD

Behavioral Safety 501
behavioral safety 5012

Keys to a successful BBS process

    • Planning
      • Like a good story
        • Who, what, where, when, why and how
    • Who is going to champion the process?
    • Who is going to manage the process?
    • Who is going to conduct observations?
    • Who is going to ensure follow-up?

Michael O'Toole, PhD

Behavioral Safety 501
slide6

Six Critical Elements of a Behavior Based Safety Process Include….

Leadership

Commitment

Training

Communications

Reduce

Incidents

Measurement

Reinforcement

Process

Management

behavioral safety 5013

Why conduct structured observations?

    • Leverages “behavior sampling” to paint a clearer picture of risks
    • Provides more objective data on which to guide continuous improvement of the organization’s safety and health processes
    • Further clarifies expectations related to safety and health aspects for both supervisor and employee

Michael O'Toole, PhD

Behavioral Safety 501
behavioral safety 5014

What jobs or tasks are we going to observe?

    • Injury or property damage history
    • High risk high hazard jobs
    • High frequency jobs
    • Intermittent jobs
  • Need to have a standard
    • Standard Operating Procedures
    • Equipment manuals
    • Regulations
    • Consensus standards
      • ANSI, NFPA, ASTM, etc

Michael O'Toole, PhD

Behavioral Safety 501
behavioral safety 5015

Who and How are observations to be completed?

    • By supervisors
      • Advantages
        • Part of their job
        • Basic responsibility to ensure safety of workers
        • Additional avenue to demonstrate management’s support
        • Increases employee involvement
      • Disadvantages
        • Another burden
        • Tool to “get” employees
          • Deflect blame

Michael O'Toole, PhD

Behavioral Safety 501
behavioral safety 5016

Who and How are observations to be completed?

    • By Peers
      • Advantages
        • Less of a threat
        • Familiar with how the job “is really done”
        • Opportunity for increased safety engagement
      • Disadvantages
        • Less objective
          • Won’t “rat out” peers
        • Pencil whipping paperwork
        • Fail to make connection with improved safety

Michael O'Toole, PhD

Behavioral Safety 501
behavioral safety 5017

Who and How are observations to be completed?

    • Self-observations
      • Advantages
        • No additional personnel
        • Forces reflection on task procedures
        • Cognitive dissonance
      • Disadvantages
        • Deception
        • Pencil whipping
        • Fear of reprisal

Michael O'Toole, PhD

Behavioral Safety 501
behavioral safety 5018

When are observations to be completed?

    • Depends on the size of the organization.
      • Daily – too often?
      • Weekly – balanced?
      • Monthly – not often enough?
  • Where are observations to be completed?
    • At the site/location where the task is being performed.

Michael O'Toole, PhD

Behavioral Safety 501
behavioral safety 5019

How are observations to be compiled?

    • Paper and pencil
      • Manually entered into computer
        • Database or spreadsheet
    • PDA data logger
      • Data are transferred into computer database
  • OR…NOT AT ALL!

Michael O'Toole, PhD

Behavioral Safety 501
behavioral safety 50110

Behavior Based Safety…or not?

    • Not a silver bullet
    • Not a program….it is a process
      • All else must be in good shape
    • Must “fit” the organization’s culture
    • Must be integrated into already successful safety and health processes

Michael O'Toole, PhD

Behavioral Safety 501
behavioral safety 50111

Disadvantages

    • Becomes a program  flavor of the month
    • Perceived by employees as another means to shift blame to employees
    • Game the system
      • Achieving the target is the focus rather than true continuous improvement
    • Becomes a bureaucratic nightmare
    • Doesn’t fit the organization’s culture
    • Seen as a fix to all the unsolved problems

Michael O'Toole, PhD

Behavioral Safety 501
behavioral safety 50112

Advantages

    • Increases Management’s opportunity to visibly demonstrate support for safety
    • Increases opportunities for all employees to be more engaged and participative in the safety and health process
    • Provides employees and the organization valuable feedback for continuous improvement
    • Provides critical leading indicators of safety performance

Michael O'Toole, PhD

Behavioral Safety 501