2.1 Spanish Explorers and Colonies Angela Brown America: Pathways to the Present kids.britannica.com
Learning Targets: I Can… • Explain how Spanish explorers built an empire in the Americas. • Describe why the Spanish encouraged settlement in regions of North America. • Summarize the causes and effects of Native American resistance to the Spanish. • Bellringer: List facts you already know about Native Americans of the Southwest and about Spanish conquest of the Americas. • Vocabulary: hidalgo, conquistador, isthmus, colony, mestizo, presidio, mission, Pueblo Revolt of 1680
Christopher Columbus • Made 4 voyages to the Americas between 1492 – 1504 • His reports of lands, peoples, and wealth drew other explorers after him. http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/ 6993344-some-obscure-but-interesting-facts- about-christopher-columbus
Building a Spanish empire • “God, gold, and glory” • The three major motives for conquering the region • They wanted to spread the Christian religion, gain wealth, and win fame. • Hidalgos – adventurous young Spanish gentlemen led expeditions against Muslims in Spain for the same three motives. • The conquistadors, or Spanish conquerors of the Americas, were continuing the tradition. http://www.legendsofamerica.com/ na-pueblorevolt.html
Spain’s major Explorers Juan Ponce de Leon Born to an upper class family An isthmus is a narrow strip of land that joins two larger land areas. In 1513 Balboa and his Spanish companions became the first known Europeans to see the Pacific Ocean from the American continent. Vasco Nunez de Balboa • Born into an upper class • family in Spain • Fought against the • Muslims • While searching in vain • for the “fountain of • youth,” he explored and • named Florida in 1513.
Explorers continued • Ferdinand Magellan • First to cross the Pacific Ocean starting from the Americas. In 1519. They sailed for 99 days without fresh food or water. Starving, they were forced to eat the leather on the rigging of their ships. • Portuguese, yet explored in Spanish ships for the Spanish king. • Straits of Magellan…crossed the stormy tip of South America. • Magellan was later killed in a fight with the people of the Philippine Islands. • His crew continued on. After a three year voyage, they became the first humans known to sail around the Entire earth.
Explorers continued • Hernan Cortes • Spanish explorer eager for wealth. • In 1519, he was sent by the Spanish governor of Cuba to conquer the vast empire ruled by the Aztec people in Mexico. • The Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, had 400,000 inhabitants and was one of the world’s largest urban centers. • The Aztecs governed 20 million people, a population twice as large as Spain’s at the time. • Cortez had a force of 600 men. • Cortez learned the Native Americans in the area hated the Aztecs for conquering and sacrificing untold numbers of them in brutal ceremonies. • With the help of a Native American princess, Malinche or Dona Marina, Cortez played on the divisions among the NA and rallied thousands of them to his side. • By 1521 Cortez and his soldiers had destroyed Tenochtitlan, and Cortez became conqueror of one of the largest empires in the world.
Explorer’s continued • Francisco Pizarro • Set out to conquer the empire of the Incas, entered in what is now Peru in South America • The Incas continued to resist as the Spanish attempted to take control of more and more of their empire. http://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_Pizarro
Control of the Spanish empire • Colonies – areas settled by immigrants who continue to be ruled by their parent country. • By the 1550s, the Spanish colonies amounted to a large empire in Mexico, Central America, South America, and the islands of the Caribbean Sea. • The economic activity that took place in the colonies made the Spanish wealthy. • Labor of enslaved NA and Africans, mined silver and gold, established farms and ranches • They did not try to drive the Indians out of their land. They forced them to become part of the colonial economy. • Under the encomienda system, NA were required to farm, ranch, or mine for the profit of an individual Spaniard. • The Spaniard was supposed to ensure the well-being of the workers. • Living on the same land, a mixed population called mestizos, which is Spanish for mixed, evolved.
The Spanish Push north • Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca and Estevanico • Shipwrecked near what is now Galveston, Texas in 1528, they wandered through the Gulf Coast region of Texas for eight years. • De Vaca was Spanish while Estevanico was an enslaved African • They were rescued by Spanish raiders in Northern Mexico. • They had heard stories of seven cities of gold located in the north from NA. • Other explorers were inspired to press northward based on these stories.
More northern explorers • Francisco Vasquez de Coronado • He also searched for the fabled golden cities. • From 1540 – 1542, he traveled through Texas and pushed as far north as Kansas. • He found only some nomadic NA. • Hernan de Soto • He landed near what is now Tampa Bay, Florida, in 1539. • His route included parts of Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. • They were probably the first Spaniards to cross the Mississippi River. • De Soto died of fever in Louisiana in 1542.
Forts for Defense • The Spanish government felt the need to encourage settlement in three neglected areas. • The Southeast Coast – • Fleets loaded with silver and gold from the Americas sailed from Cuba to Spain. • They wanted to safeguard these fleets. • In 1565, Pedro Menendez de Aviles, a conquistador, established the settlement of St. Augustine in Florida. • The Southwest – • In January 1598, the conquistador Juan de Onate and 400 others claimed an area they called New Mexico…including parts of Arizona and Texas. • The colony grew to include more than 2000 Spanish people over the next 80 years.
Defenses continued • The West Coast – • California would be key to establishing trade routes across the Pacific Ocean. • Major efforts to colonize this region, however, did not begin until the 1700s. http://www.citytowninfo.com/places/california/map
Missionaries • These Spanish settlements were forts, or presidios. • The success of the Spanish outposts was not due to the few soldiers occupying the forts but to the Franciscans. • These priests and nuns were a Catholic group dedicated to the work of St. Francis of Assisi, • The settled in Florida and New Mexico as Missonaries. • Missionaries are people who are sent out by their church to teach people their religion. • They converted NA to Christianity and established dozens of missions – headquarters where missionaries lived and worked. • With the help of soldiers, they forced the NA into settled villages or congregacions, where they would farm and worship like Catholic Europeans.
Resistance to the Spanish • Some NA nomadic groups like the Apache of the Southwest, refused to cooperate with the Spanish. • NA fighting against the Spanish was generally disorganized. • Following years of drought that weakened the Spanish power, the Pueblo people united in what is called the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. • Widespread sickness and drought had reduced the Pueblo population to about 17,000. • The Pueblo began to turn back to their traditional religious practices. • In August of 1680 the Pueblo people in NM rose under the leadership of a man named Pope and drove the Spanish out of Santa Fe. • The Pueblo killed priests, colonists, and soldiers, and destroyed the Spanish missions. • Years passed before the Spanish were able to return and rebuild.
Continued Resistance • In Florida, similar NA rebellions occurred in the late 1600s. • Some NA combined forces with the English in NA, who were at war with Spain at that time. • Together they mounted crushing attacks on Spanish presidios in Florida from their own colony in South Carolina. • This limited the Spanish to a total of two new presidios, San Marcos de Apalachee and Pensacola. http://www.xtimeline.com/evt/ view.aspx?id=621300
Exit Slip • Summarizing Main Idea: Describe how and where the Spanish built an empire in the Americas. • Organizing Information: Create a graphic organizer showing three reasons why the Spanish Government encouraged settlement in the three regions of North America. • Cause and Effect: How did legends and rumors play a part in building European knowledge of the Americas? • Interpret the following motto printed in a Spanish book in 1599: “By the sword and the compass, more an d more and more and more.”