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World War II. THE SHADOW OF WAR International Affairs 1921-1941. How and for what reasons did U.S. foreign policy change between 1920 and 1941? (To what extent did the United States adopt an isolationist policy in the 1920s and 1930s?). GUIDING QUESTION. Peace with Germany, 1921

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guiding question
How and for what reasons did U.S. foreign policy change between 1920 and 1941?

(To what extent did the United States adopt an isolationist policy in the 1920s and 1930s?)

GUIDING QUESTION
diplomacy in the 1920s engagement without entanglements
Peace with Germany, 1921

League of Nations - “unofficial observers”

Washington Conference (1922)

Five-Power Naval Treaty of 1922

Nine-Power Treaty– “Open Door” in China

Significance: battleships and aircraft carriers only; no enforcement mechanism

Kellogg-Briand Pact (Pact of Paris)(1928)

Problems: “defensive wars”, no enforcement mechanism

Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)

Dawes Plan (1924)

DIPLOMACY IN THE 1920S: ENGAGEMENT WITHOUT ENTANGLEMENTS
diplomacy in the 1930s from engagement to isolationism
Hoover – troops out of Haiti (1932), Nicaragua (1933)

“Good Neighbor Policy”

1933 – US renounced intervention (Roosevelt Corollary)

1934 - Marines pulled out of Haiti

1934 – Cuba released from terms of Platt Amendment

1938 – Mexico nationalized oil cos.; money settlement instead armed intervention

U.S. recognized the Soviet Union (1933)

DIPLOMACY IN THE 1930s: FROM ENGAGEMENT TO ISOLATIONISM
from isolationism to war
Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936 and 1937

German aggression

1935 – compulsory military service; air force and armored divisions

Rhineland, 1936

Austria, 1938

Munich Conference (Sept 1938)

appeasement

March 1939 – Germany took remainder of Czechoslovakia

FROM ISOLATIONISM TO WAR
from isolationism to war1
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (August 1939)

Invasion of Poland (Sept 1, 1939)

blitzkrieg

Denmark

Norway

France

Dunkirk

Battle of Britain (Aug. 1940 -June 1941)

Invasion of Soviet Union

(June 1941)

Soviet Aggression

Eastern Poland(Sept 1939)

Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania(1940)

“moral embargo”against USSR

FROM ISOLATIONISM TO WAR
from isolationism to war2
FDR’s“Quarantine” speech(1937, after Japanese invasion of China)

“Preparedness”

Change in US Policy

Most alarmed by German conquests, but wanted no part in war

FDR: Britain essential to US defense; began chipping away at neutrality legislation any way he could to assist GB

cash-and-carry policy (1939)

Selective Service Act (Sept 1940)

Destroyers for Bases Deal (Sept 1940)

FROM ISOLATIONISM TO WAR

Anti-Third Term Buttons, 1940

from isolationism to war3
“Arsenal of Democracy”

Lend-Lease Act (March 1941)

“shoot on sight”(July 1941)

Atlantic Charter (Aug 1941)

FROM ISOLATIONISM TO WAR

Roosevelt and Churchill at Atlantic Charter Meeting, 1941 (Franklin D. Roosevelt Library)

America First bumper sticker: "Keep Our Boys at Home"

(Herbert Hoover Presidential Library)

from isolationism to war4
DISPUTES WITH JAPAN

economic pressure on Japan (steel, oil)

Pearl Harbor (Dec 7 1941)

2400 killed (over 1100 on Arizona), 1200 wounded;

21 warships sunk or severely damaged; over 300 planes destroyed or severely damaged

FROM ISOLATIONISM TO WAR

FDR before Congress asking for a Declaration of War against Japan, Dec. 8, 1941

The U.S.S. West Virginia, Pearl Harbor

(U.S. Army)

guiding question1
To what extent did the Second World War bring about lasting change in the American society, economy and government? GUIDING QUESTION
mobilizing the economy
1.Industrial Production

War Production Board

converted industries, allocated materials, and organized drives to recycle any usable products.

By 1944, war production double that of all Axis powers

Factories changed their production decided by the WPB.

Example: automobile factories started making tanks and planes within weeks.

MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY
mobilizing the economy1
2.

Office of Price Administration

rationing

3.

Controlling Labor

”no-strike” pledges

Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act (War Labor Disputes Act) (1943)

union membership: major increase

MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY

Labor Union Membership, 1920-1960

Ration Card

mobilizing the economy2
4.Farmers – farm income doubled, as in World War I

(tripled compared to the depression)

5. Financing the War: $321 billion total! cost $100 billion for 1945 alone

Liberty Bonds

MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY

Military Expenditures and the National Debt, 1929-1945

War Bond

mobilizing the economy3
6.

Propaganda

Office of War Information

Result: largely avoided anti-German hysteria of WWI

anti-Japanese hysteria on West Coast

MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY
effects on the homefront impact on the economy
End of the Depression

High employment

Farm crisis ended

personal income increased

rationing

savings

Union membership

Corporate consolidation

EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT: IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY
effects on the homefront women work and family
Armed Forces - 200K+ women; non-combat roles: clerical jobs in WACS and WAVES.

Work Force - 6.5 million women entered (57% increase)

concentrated in government clerical jobs

"Rosie the Riveter"

Families – “8-hour orphans”, juvenile delinquency, crime,

child care

Surveys of time: real concern that families were negatively impacted by war

EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT: WOMEN, WORK AND FAMILY
government wwii video
Government WWII video

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKrHfTGWxQ4

impact on society minorities rights
Second Great Migration

Race riots - Detroit and New York (1943)

Armed Forces: Million+ served; in segregated units

Efforts to end discrimination: black unions, threatened marches (A. Philip Randolph on Washington 1942) - pressure on companies with gov’t contracts

FDR’s response:

Executive order prohibiting discrimination in defense plants

Fair Employment Practices Commission to investigate discrimination

IMPACT ON SOCIETY: Minorities & Rights
  • Results:
  • Significant decrease in number willing to accept status of second class citizens.
  • Repudiation of Nazi racism strengthened civil rights efforts
effects on the homefront impact on minorities civil rights
Japanese Americans

Internment

Executive Order 8066

Korematsu v. U.S. (1944)

In re Endo(1944)

EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT: IMPACT ON MINORITIES & CIVIL RIGHTS

Japanese American Internment Camps

internment camp video
Internment Camp Video

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PgmbOh9zJLY

japanese american internment

Japanese-American store

Members of the Mochida family awaiting evacuation bus

Japanese-American Internment

Awaiting baggage inspection upon arrival at Assembly Center, Turlock, CA, May 2, 1942

Crowd of onlookers on the first day of evacuation from the Japanese quarter in San Francisco

japanese american internment1

War Relocation authority center, Manzanar, California. July 3, 1942

Japanese-American Internment

Newly arrived evacuees outside of mess hall at noon, Tanforan Assembly Center. San Bruno, CA, April 29, 1942.(National Archives and Records Administration)

The Hirano family, Colorado River Relocation Center, Poston, AZ

government and politics expansion of government power
New Deal programs - partially eliminated (Ex: WPA, CCC).

Vast expansion of power for federal government

Election of 1944

FDR ran for unprecedented fourth term

Thomas E. Dewey (Rep Gov NY) – biggest issue: govt control over peoples’ lives

Harry S Truman

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS: EXPANSION OF GOVERNMENT POWER

Employees in the Executive Branch, 1901–1995

Presidential Election of 1944

defeating germany
Operation Torch (1942-May 1943)

Gen. George C. Marshall

Second front in France?

Stalingrad (Dec 1942/Jan 1943)

Air War

incendiary raids on Hamburg, Berlin and Dresden

Invasion of Italy

Mussolini

DEFEATING GERMANY
invasion of normandy
Invasion of Normandy

Eisenhower Meets with Paratroopers before D-Day

D-DAY LANDING JUNE 6, 1944

After the Normandy Invasion

defeating germany1
Allied invasion of France

Normandy - D-Day (June 6, 1944)

Battle of the Bulge (late December 1944)

Fall of Germany

Berlin (June 2, 1945)

Hitler suicide (April 30)

Surrender May 8, 1945 (V-E Day)

DEFEATING GERMANY
guiding question2
Why did the United States decide to use atomic bombs against Japan?

(strictly military measure to end the war? or diplomatic measure designed to intimidate the Soviet Union in the postwar era?)

GUIDING QUESTION
war in the pacific1
Philippines

Bataan Death March

Battle of Coral Sea (May 7-8, 1942)

Midway (June 4-7, 1942)

Island-hopping

Gen Douglass MacArthur

Admiral Chester Nimitz

Solomon Islands – Guadalcanal

WAR IN THE PACIFIC
island hopping in the pacific
Island-Hopping in the Pacific

American Troops Before Amphibious Landing

US troops wading ashore Butaritari, November 1943

Attempting to Secure a Beachhead on Pacific Island

Sprawled bodies on beach Tarawa

war in the pacific2
Leyte Gulf (Oct 1944)

kamikazes

Iwo Jima (Feb-March 1945)

Okinawa (April – June 1945)

WAR IN THE PACIFIC

Flag Raising on Iwo Jima

beginning the atomic age
FDR death (Warm Springs, GA, April 12, 1945)

Harry S Truman (President 1945-53)

BEGINNING THE ATOMIC AGE

Churchill, Roosevelt & Stalin at Yalta, Feb. 1945

President Truman addressing Congress after Roosevelt’s death

beginning the atomic age1
Manhattan Project (begun 1942)

Alamagordo, NM, July 16, 1945

Unconditional surrender or face “utter destruction”

Hiroshima (August 6, 1945)

Nagasaki (August 9, 1945)

Japan surrender September 2, 1945 (V-J Day)

BEGINNING THE ATOMIC AGE

Col. Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., & the ENOLA GAY

Atomic Bombs: “Little Boy” &“Fat Man”

slide54
Arguments for use

Japanese refused to surrender. It was estimated an invasion similar to D-Day was needed to bring the war to an end.

US officials estimated conquest of Japan’s empire would last an additional 18 months to 2 years.

US officials estimated Allied casualties at 1/2 to 1 1/2 million, in addition to huge Japanese losses if there was an invasion of Japan.

Japanese leadership was informed of the destructive power and nature of the bomb and offered a period to surrender but declined.

Arguments opposed

Bombs were untested and their destruction unknown

Neither city was a major military target and the attacks would mainly kill Japanese civilians.

Radiation poisoning, birth defects and contamination would have negative effects on the population.

Would set a precedent about using weapons of mass destruction in war

ATOMIC BOMB

results of the second world war
300,000 dead, over 800K wounded

$320 billion cost

National debt rose from $50 Billion in 1941 to $250 billion by 1945

End of Depression

Joined United Nations

Only major power without significant physical damage

RESULTS OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR
slide59

WWII Memorial, Washington, DC

Dedicated on April 29, 2004

sources
Brinkley, American History: A Survey 10e

America:Pathways to the Present (2003)

National Archives and Records Administration

Thomson Wadsworth US History Image Bank - http://www.wadsworth.com/history_d/special_features/image_bank_US/1931_1945.html

Teaching Politics, http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/_browse1950.htm

American Journey Online

Divine, America Past and Present Revd 7th Ed.

Nash, The American People 6e; http://wps.ablongman.com/long_nash_ap_6/0,7361,592970-,00.html

Faragher, Out of Many 3e http://wps.prenhall.com/hss_faragher_outofmany_ap/

Jones, Created Equal

Kennedy, American Pageant 13e

Susan Pojer, Horace Greeley H.S., Chappaqua, NY

Henretta, America’s History 5e, http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/mapcentral

Roark, American Promise 3e, http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/mapcentral

http://www.printmini.com/printables/mil/index.shtml (camouflage)

SOURCES