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„THE bigfoot“Sustainable retrofitRefurbishmentin Žirmūnų st.116 Mantas bučiūnas MartinOjamaa OthmanKhebbab
_Content 1_The big foot 2_General information 3_Energy efficiency 4_Building services 5_Design& materials
Bigfoot, also known as sasquatch, is the name given to an ape-like creature that some people believe inhabits forests, mainly in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Bigfoot is described in reports as a large hairy ape-like creature, in a range of 2–3 m tall, weighing in excess of 230 kg, and covered in dark brown or dark reddish hair.
Žirmūnai- one of the biggest and oldest district in Vilnius. However almost the majorityofthe buildings build in Soviet Union are not refurbished...
_Energy efficiency The main goal is to reduce the heating costs and to extend the building's life expectancy.
Current situation _Walls- 300mm concrete. U=2,8 W/m2K _Roof- 100mm cocrete slab + 200mm lightweightconcrete insulation. U=0,65 W/m2K _Windows and balcony doors- 2 layers of glass, U=3,0 W/m2K _Many cold bridges
Renovation _Insulating: • Walls • Roof • Socket and foundation • Basement ceiling _Replacing: • windows • balcony doors
Insulation Rockwool _Made from natural material _Long lasting _High fire resistance _Free of maintenance _Nature-friendly production _Λ= 0,036 W/mK
Walls _150mm + 100mm rockwool slabs _Stucco finishing _Closed balconies _Professional workers _Correct installation _U= 0,11 W/m2K
Windows and balcony doors _Triple glazed windows and balcony doors U= 0,77 W/m2K _Correctly installed _Window frame partly covered
Roof _Waterproof material _2x200mm rockwool slabs _20mm hard rockwool slabs _Bitumen roofing _Parapet insulation _U= 0,08 W/m2K
Socket and foundation _200mm XPS slabs Λ= 0,04W/mK _Waterproof material _Stucco _Basement ceiling - 200mm rock wool _First floor U= 0,11 W/m2K
Heating demands and costs * All the calculations are based on Estonian climate data.
Hybrid ventilation (or mixed ventilation) _Natural ventilation + Mechanical ventilation _Use them at different time of the day or season of the year _Usually have a control system to switch between natural and mechanical modes _Combine the advantages of both to satisfy the actual ventilation needs and minimize energy consumption
Ventilation with cross flow _For the mechanical part of the Hybrid ventilation we use Ventilation with Cross flow. Why?
Ventilation losses After calculations we found : Losses for simple flow = -7842,42 kJ/h
Ventilation losses Again the losses of the cross flow = -3464 kJ/hSo the energy gains is : 4378.42 kJ/h
Ventilation with cross flow The system is demand-controlled, so that the volume of air is adapted to the current demand all the time. The ventilation system secures optimal comfort and good indoor climate with continuous ventilation day and night. In addition the system can manually be demand-controlled for forced extraction through the cooker hood in each single apartment. A - Ventilation unit with cross-flow heat exchanger B – Roof cap C – Cooker hoods (extraction) in kitchens D – Extraction in bathrooms E – Inlet in living- and bedrooms
Ventilation calculation The basic ventilation has to be at least 0.3 l/s per m2. • Example: Sheltered dwelling or student hall of residence of 35 m2 with bath and kitchen. Basic ventilation: 35 x 0,3 x 3,6 = 37,8 m3/h • The following distribution of the air amount is recommended: Bath Kitchen Total • Basic ventilation 5,5 l/s 20 m3/h 5 l/s 18 m3/h 10,5 l/s 38 m3/h • Min. forced ventilation 15 l/s 54 m3/h 20 l/s 72 m3/h 35 l/s 126 m3/h • Max. forced ventilation 15 l/s 54 m3/h 40 l/s 144 m3/h 55 l/s 198 m3/h
Two-roomed apartment of 60 m2. Basic ventilation: 60 x 0,3 x 3,6 = 64,8 m3/h The following distribution of the air amount is recommended: Bath Kitchen Total Basic ventilation 10 l/s 35 m3/h 8 l/s 30 m3/h 18 l/s 65 m3/h Min. forced ventilation 15 l/s 54 m3/h 20 l/s 72 m3/h 35 l/s 126 m3/h Max. forced ventilation 15 l/s 54 m3/h 40 l/s 144 m3/h 55 l/s 198 m3/h Ventilation calculation Example 2
Grey water recycling systems Grey Water Recycling Systems reduce the mains water consumption throughout these apartments which in turn reduces the water costs How the System's work ?
Grey water recycling systems 1. Filtration The filter station in conjunction with the lift station is the primary stage of the greywater recycling system. It is vital that greywater is filtered for the removal of particles of solid matter and the various personal hygiene products used while showering or bathing.
Grey water recycling systems 2. Storage The holding tank is the secondary stage of the greywater recycling system. The importance of the holding tank is its storage capacity relative to the number of people it will serve within a building. The holding tank must collect and store enough greywater to supply the building’s toilet flushing requirements.
Grey water recycling systems 3. Disinfection The disinfection of the greywater stored in the holding tank is performed by the monitoring of the volumes of incoming greywater by the systems electronic water management controller on the pump station. The greywater is driven from the holding tank by a dedicated chlorination pump through the chlorination housing (containing calcium hypochlorite) to the lift station (a separate tank) through the filter station and then onto the holding tank.
Grey water recycling systems 4. Greywater Distribution On demand (toilet flushing) greywater is taken from the holding tank and pumped under pressure automatically by an inverter controlled multistage centrifugal pump distributing it to the building’s toilets. The inverter control maintains constant operating pressure at a selected pressure setting. The pump cycles up when greywater is consumed and automatically cycles down as water usage decreases.
Grey water recycling systems _In the event of low levels of greywater in the holding tank, the controller will automatically activate the actuated valve on the pump station which will allow freshwater to supply the building’s toilets. Once the level of greywater within the holding tank increases, the controller will automatically activate the actuated valve on the pump station. This will again allow greywater to supply the building’s toilets. _What are the benefits of grey water harvesting? • Reduce mains water consumption • Reduced storage and lower cost compared to rainwater harvesting • Reduced overall environmental impact of the building • Usual pay-back 3/5 years • Supply equates to demand, the system is sustainable - no reliance on unpredictable rainfall
Solar analysis _Main facades are orientated to EAST and WEST _After calculations ~70% of solar heat is efficient -10,3kWh/m2/year
Plan _3 types of flats per floor _4x flats with 3 rooms and 2x flats with 2 rooms _No internal changes were made
_FibreCement Facades The simple combination of wood cellulose, synthetic fibres, water and cement make fibre cement
Different type of fibre cement cladding _natura _tectiva _textura _picture
Different type of fibre cement cladding _natura _tectiva _picture _textura
Construction 1_Existing wall 2_Fixing systems 3_Insulation 4_Air gap 5_Rainscreen system
Real life example This apartment complex in Lithuania clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of overcladding. The apartment block on the left has been overclad with Marley EternitTexturarainscreen cladding: to the right, the building’s original and uninsulated brick and block construction has been left untouched. Data on the heating expenditure for both buildings show that the renovated and overclad side of the block made more than 40% fuel savings compared to the non-renovated side. The measurements were taken during the winter of 2009-2010which was the coldest in 10 years. During the heating period of 2009-2010, total savings of renovated section over the nonrenovated section, were 42.2%. These excellent results were reached despite ineffective insulation around windows.
Advantages _Can achieve an A+ rating _Fire classifications A2-s1, d0 to EN 13501-1 _Installed life expectancy of at least 50 years _Designed for rainscreen cladding systems _Excellent weather and chemical resistance _Durable facade material _Resistant to impact damage _Resistant to insects, mould growth and fungi _No routine maintenance required _BBA Certificate No. 06/4355
2500x1220mm 3100x1250mm 8/12mm 13,6/20,4kg/m² 0,4W/mK Frost resistant Class 0 EN 13501-1 A2-s1, d0 1220x2500mm 1220x3050mm 8/12mm 14,4/22,8kg/m² 0,4W/mK Frost resistant Class 0 EN 13501-1 A2-s1, d0 _textura Comparison Sheet size Thickness Weight Thermal conductivity Frost resistance Reaction to fire _natura 1220x2500mm 1220x3050mm 8mm 14,9kg/m² 0,39W/mK Frost resistant Class 0 EN 13501-1 A2-s1, d0 _tectiva 2500x1250mm 3100x1250mm 8/12mm 15,4/22,8kg/m² 0,6W/mK Frost resistant Class 0 EN 13501-1 A2-s1, d0 _picture
_PVGU Windows PythagorasSolar’s PVGUs are designed to replace conventional Insulating glass units (IGUs) in curtain wall, window and skylight systems. It is the first product to simultaneously provide energy efficiency, solar energy generation, and optimized daylighting.
_Energy efficiency Extremely low solar heat gain Low U-values Daylighting _Energy generation Highest power density, 4X existing BIPV technologies Cost efficient using sunlight concentration _Aesthetics Highest transparency Choice of colors Modern look Adaptable design Available in skylight, vertical curtain wall, and soon in colored tiles PVGU windows from Pythagoras solar_ PVGU Skylight PVGU window
PVGU windows from Pythagoras solar_ This is achieved through patent-pending optics, high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells, advanced materials science, and proprietary software design tools. The PVGU is designed around the form factor of a standard insulated glass unit (double paned window).