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Stewardship/Management of Transgenic Products. Micheal D. K. Owen Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011 USA mdowen@iastate.edu www.weeds.iastate.edu. Introduction.

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stewardship management of transgenic products

Stewardship/Management of Transgenic Products

Micheal D. K. Owen

Iowa State UniversityAmes, IA 50011 USA

mdowen@iastate.edu

www.weeds.iastate.edu

introduction
Introduction
  • Stewardship reflects management decisions that will enhance and preserve a particular crop trait and are economically rewarding
  • Some traits impart selection pressure upon the pest complex for which they are designed (i.e. BT)
  • Traits for herbicide resistance in crops are “benign” and do not exert selection pressure – the herbicide exerts the selection pressure
introduction1
Introduction
  • The “stewardship” efforts initiated by the Weed Science group and supported by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative represent two areas:
    • Evaluation and monitoring of weeds with variable responses to glyphosate
    • Development of weed management strategies for specific output traits or specialty traits
glyphosate stewardship
Glyphosate stewardship
  • Clean fields do not necessarily equate to good weed management
    • The objective of weed management is to protect crop yield potential
  • Diversified weed management tactics provide significant benefits to glyphosate-based systems
    • Residual herbicides applied EPP or PRE are important components of a weed management program
    • Mechanical weed control tactics should be included
  • Timely application of tactics is critical for all weed management programs
stewardship and grower attitudes
Stewardship and Grower Attitudes
  • Considerable effort in providing information about the evolution of herbicide resistance
  • These efforts have been marginally effective (e.g. ALS resistance)
  • 66% of Indiana growers expressed only a low to moderate concern about glyphosate resistance
  • Only 38% recognized the role of repeat MOAs on selection pressure
  • Adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops continues to rise
the glyphosate decade

1998: Rigid ryegrass in CA

2000: Horseweed in DE, MD, NJ

2001: Horseweed in TN, KY

2002: Horseweed in IN, OH

2002: “Variably tolerant” waterhemp in IA, IL, MO

2003: Horseweed in AR, MS, NC

2004: Common ragweed in MO

2004: Italian ryegrass in OR

2005: Palmer pigweed suspected in NC

2005: Horseweed in CA

2005: Palmer pigweed in GA and TN

2005: Common waterhemp in MO

The Glyphosate Decade

2006: Horseweed in NE

Source: University & USDA reports

weeds to watch in iowa
Weeds to watch in Iowa
  • Common lambsquarters
  • Giant ragweed
  • Common waterhemp
  • Asiatic dayflower
  • Marestail
  • Others?
slide8

Even at low population (10 plants/m2) Asiatic dayflower reduces soybean yield (Mishra et al 2002)

specialty grains high value crops
Specialty grains/high value crops
  • Several field experiments have been conducted on inbreds, cultivars, and output trait crops
  • Experiments focus on evaluating the potential for existing and new herbicides to manage weeds in these crops
  • Particular attention is given to the relative tolerance of the crops to the herbicides
  • Past efforts had included considerable experimentation with popcorn varieties
2006 efforts
2006 efforts
  • Experiments with 8 low lin soybean varieties
  • Experiments with 3 white corn varieties, 1 high oil and 1 waxy variety
  • Experiments on 7 sensitive and very sensitive inbreds
2006 efforts1
2006 efforts
  • Registered and experimental herbicides were included in the experiments
  • Application timing, herbicide combinations and rates were included
  • Results available at www.weeds.iastate.edu