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  1. „Transboundary Watermanagement“ 14 - 24 July Workshop on Berlin - Tuesday, 15.07.2003

  2. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 1 Dr. H. Kehl Todays Topic of Conversation and Discussion: with decentral and quasi self-sustaining resource management as an alternative solution for cellular and regional supply and disposal structures. Subsistence farming and water management vs. TNCs (Transnational Companies), supra-national and national water resource management. ”Small Scale Closed Loop Recycling Water Management as a Realization of Demand-Oriented Subsidiarity" Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  3. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 2 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty What are the PRE-CONDITIONS for LDCs with NEGATIVE EFFECTS? Some basic facts (source partly: David Pimentel, Ecologist, Cornell Univ.): • Many middle and high-income countries (incl. the USA and those within the EU) continue to support agricultural production from large scale agriculture, e.g. grain, both directly through market protection and support - with the result of overproduction. • The developed countries support their agricultural production with 350 billion U.S.$ per year. It is about seven times the rate they spend for foreign aid. • The above mentioned facts might be a reason why in Africa the tonnage of food produced and consumed per-capita is falling actually. Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  4. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management • Export with giveaway prices: The subsidized grain export (up to 47%) of the EU is about 29 Mio. tons (expected grain export in 2006 about 34 Mio. tons and for USA about 106 Mio. tons). • Moreover, nearly 60% of the U.S. grain and nearly 50% of world grain is being - ecologically counterproductive - fed to livestock rather than being consumed directly by humans. 3 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty What are the PRE-CONDITIONS for LDCs with NEGATIVE EFFECTS? Some basic facts (source partly: David Pimentel, Ecologist, Cornell Univ.): Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  5. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 4 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty What are the PRE-CONDITIONS for LDCs with NEGATIVE EFFECTS? Some basic facts: • The respectable German weekly DIE ZEIT noticed in its current issue (July 10th): „The chronic misery of Africa turns the continent to an enormous market of U.S. agricultural surplus.“ Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  6. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 5 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty What are the pre-conditions with NEGATIVE EFFECTS? Some facts (source partly: David Pimentel, Ecologist, Cornell Univ.): • For every kg of high-quality animal protein produced, livestock are fed nearly 6kg of plant protein. • Tracking food animal production from the feed trough to the dinner table, beef cattle production requires a fossil fuel energy input to protein output ratio of 54 : 1; chicken meat production consumes energy in a 4 : 1 ratio to protein output (U.S. Departm. of Agricultural Statistics). • Every kilogram of beef produced takes 100.000 liters of water. • Raising broiler chickens takes 3.500 liters of water to make a kg of meat. Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  7. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management For example: • Soybean production: 2.000 liters per kg of food produced 6 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty In comparison: Water consumption to produce plant protein under temperate to semi-arid conditions • At an average, to produce 1kg of grain requires about 1.000 liters of crop evapotranspiration (aEPT). • Rise production: 1.900 (450-2.500) liters per kg dry matter • Wheat production: 435 (-900) liters per kg dry matter • Potatoe production: 500 (-640) liters per kg dry matter • Indian corn (maize): 368 (-450) liters per kg dry matter Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  8. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management • Livestock is directly or indirectly responsible for much of the soil erosion in many countries. 7 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty Other ecological effects of intensive stock rearing and large area cultivation of grain: • On U.S. lands where grain feed is produced, soil loss averages 13 tons per hectare/a. • Due to the vegetation cover pasture lands are eroding at a lower space, at an average of 6 tons/a. • But erosion may exceed 100 tons on severely overgrazed pastures, and 54% of U.S. pasture land is being overgrazed (D. Pimentel, 1997 - Cornell Univ.) Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  9. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 8 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty The ecological point of view and appraisement: • From an ecologist‘s perspective, the American (& partly European) system of farming grain-fed livestock, consumes resources far out of proportion to the yield, accelerates soil erosion, affects world food supply and have to be changed. Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  10. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 9 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty Other pre-conditions with NEGATIVE EFFECTS for LDCs: • WTO negotiations on General Agreement on Trade in Servises (GATS) and International development policies implemented since the 1980s, including Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs), further restricted public investments in agriculture in LDCs. • Smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa has been taxed rather than subsidized in contradiction to large-scale agriculture. • Smallholders receive less public support, and face more competition from cheap foreign products (often declared as aid) that flood their markets. Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  11. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 10 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty Other pre-conditions with NEGATIVE EFFECTS for LDCs: • Food imports with dumping prices, drawn from ever-cheaper world markets, jeopardize the implementation of prices that are sufficiently high to reward the farmers‘ efforts, which is the most critical stimulation of intensification. • Already in the late sixties of the last century it was clear that increasing competion on world markets would penalize export oriented LDCs(Franke 1967). • Restricted public support given during the first three quarters of the last century as biased toward large-scale, mechanized, (often) white settler agriculture and capital-intensive, notoriously inefficient state-managed estates. Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  12. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 11 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty Other pre-conditions with NEGATIVE EFFECTS for LDCs: • In the framework and latest outcome of GATS (and NAFTA) recommendations cost-intensive water supply of rural areas remains at the risk of governmental organisations, and the water supply and waste management of urban settlements are going to be privatized. • The necessary and responsible allocation of cost (profit and lost) between subsidized rural areas and profidable urban areas does not take place. • Inefficient assignment of duties, e.g. in respect of service contracts, discovery of hiden costs, maintenance of infrastructure, additionally, little evaluation of social impact are threatening essential public services. Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  13. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 12 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty Lessons learnt? What could be done? • PROTECTION: Without protection, African producers and ultimately the economy as a whole, will lose out because of these massive imports, and restricted exports, or reinforcement of import duties by poor African countries. • ENCOURAGEMENT: Therefore, for sub-Saharan Africa, enhancing the productivity of smallholder agriculture is the only way out of the poverty trap. Because, „there is ample evidence that smaller farmers play a greater part than larger farmers in engendering both pro-poor agricultural and overall economic growth both in Asia and Africa“ (B.v.Koppen, 2002, Water Development for Poverty Eradication). Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  14. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 13 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty What are the - well-known - facts and what can we learn? • Past economic growth in high income countries, and recent growth in the Asian Tigers were typically preceeded by, and based upon, agricultural growth and self-sufficiency. • Agriculture is a dynamic engine of growth and an important contributor to welfare in later stages of economic development. Growing rural, and urban, off-farm employment reflects agricultural growth. • Agricultural growth in semi-arid countries is linked to, and based on, land suitability and ownership, water availability, and irrigation requirements of different types. Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  15. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 14 An example from Kenyaby Hatsuya Azumi (2002)

  16. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 15 FARMERS’ TAKE OVER BY FORCE Tragic Case of Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kenya Hatsuya Azumi April 2002

  17. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 16 Lessons Learned Dr. H. Kehl • Preconditions for farmers assuming O&M responsibilities: • Land ownership or long-term lease • Reasonably operative facilities (especially when farmers are so poor) • Legal framework: acts, decrees, ordinances, etc. but also by laws • Freedom to choose crops • Freedom to set water charge and decide on collection mechanism • Public awareness building and cap. building source: Hatsuya Azumi, April 2002 Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  18. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 17 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty What are the - well-known - facts and what can we learn? • In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) the likelihood that expansion of formal irrigation will be able to play a similar role and have the same productivity impacts as it did in Asia is remote! • The experience with large-scale and even smaller community-managed irrigation schemes has been disappointing; costs of investment and leakage (incl. non-productive evaporation) tend to be high, while the returns have been low. IWMI, WP55, 2003 Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  19. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 18 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty What are the - well-known - facts and what can we learn? • Reg. Public Private Partnership (PPP) and Private Sector Participation (PSP) - projects: • Recent development politics with focus on implementation of PPP / PSP - projects with TNCs have shown that profit-oriented water supply and waste water management penalize more frequent the rural poor and, generally, prefer the urban - financially strong - population. Hoering, 2001 / 2003 and Social Watch Report 2003 • Restrictively, it should be mentioned here that the so-called „German model“ - in contradiction to World Bank and IMF conditionalities - do not favour the complete privatization of the water sector or commercialization, respectively. Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  20. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 19 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty „Achieving ‚More Crop Per Drop‘ is possible, and a real solution to the water crisis over the coming two decades.“ IWMI, 2003 • As David Molden, Leader of the Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture, anounced in Kyoto 2003, an increasing water productivity can be reached only by an integrated, holistic approach to water resource managament. • Various approaches and experiments, especially by NGOs, have shown that the shift of responsibilities to small farmers for small-scale water-demand management can help save water, increase economic efficiency of use, improve water quality, and even promote environmentally sustainable water use. IWMI, WP55, 2003 Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  21. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 20 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty „Achieving ‚More Crop Per Drop‘ is possible, and a real solution to the water crisis over the coming two decades.“ IWMI, 2003 • Smaller farmers tend to produce more per unit of land than larger farmers, because of a higher-value crop mix, more double cropping, more intercropping, and less fallowing. Yields are also often higher. B.v.Koppen 2002 • Subsistence farming with decentral and quasi self-sustaining (water) resource management could reduce the agricultural impact an natural ecosystems, and would be a chance for an environment-friendly re-adaptation of agriculture to nature. Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  22. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 21 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty „Achieving ‚More Crop Per Drop‘ is possible, and a real solution to the water crisis over the coming two decades.“ IWMI, 2003 • In contradiction, intensive agriculture has often been enabled by major public support for the overexploitation of water resources, and its consequences have been severe. • E.g., between 1980 and 1995, Saudi Arabia consumed 75% of the proven reserves of fossil ground water in its major aquifers to irrigate wheat crops. FTGW, 1997 • Libya(Great Man-Made River) and Egypt(New Valley resp. Toska Project) both, are on the way to use up their huge - but limited (!) - non-renewable fossil ground water reserves. Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  23. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 22 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty „Achieving ‚More Crop Per Drop‘ is possible, and a real solution to the water crisis over the coming two decades.“ IWMI, 2003 • The „Green Revolution“ of the so-called developed countries came with a high environmental price in the form of increased pollution and depletion of water resources, e.g. pesticide and synthetic fertilizers, as well as consistent watering, achieving in nearly all cases through large irrigation projects. • Perhaps most dramatically, irrigated cotton production in Central Asia has diverted so much water from the Amur Darya and Syr Darya rivers that they no longer reach the Aral Sea. Therefore, the Aral Sea ecosystem has changed completely (c.f. Monday-Lesson!) Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  24. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 23 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty Options and techniques within the overall framework of an integrated, holistic approach to water resources management • Basically and essentially, structural adjustments for internal (national) necessities (satisfaction of elementary needs) should be realized: • e.g. decentralization, realization of subsidiarity principles and implementation of agricultural extensive services. • Dicison-makers and researchers (e.g. hydrologists) must now shift their focus from enlarging supplies of managing its demand. • Concideration of different social + cultural norms and traditionel water management technologies is a precondition to be successful. Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  25. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 24 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty Options and techniques within the overall framework of an integrated, holistic approach to water resources management • For sence-making processes integration approaches by „Connecting People“. • Transperancy through facilitation and fostering communication between people. • Educational advertising and consultance, due to the fact that planned water reuse in the context of integrated water resources management provides a strong argument against the „traditional“ practice and offers instead systematic progress towards safe and reliable sanitation practices. Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  26. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 25 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty Options and techniques within the overall framework of an integrated, holistic approach to water resources management • Appropriate and affordable technologies would include methods of rain water harvesting and storage in underground tanks (cisterns, collector or tube wells), e.g. • Methods of collecting rain run-offs (roof water and roadtop water harvesting), as it has been practised in N-Africa and Greece in ancient time and partly today. Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  27. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 26 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty Options and techniques within the overall framework of an integrated, holistic approach to water resources management • E.g.: Sally et al. (2000) and Sally & Abernethy (2002) discuss, what they named, precision irrigation in a basin perspective. They point out that precision irrigation is not necessarily an expensive high-technology option. • Additionally, tillage operations (protection against evaporation), vegetation measures and contour bunds for soil and water conservation (incl. artificial ground water recharge ), treadle pumps or small mechanized pumps, low pressure drip irrigation, collective pump and gravity irrigation schemes and small village dams, etc. Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  28. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 27 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty Options and techniques within the overall framework of an integrated, holistic approach to water resources management • Reduce evapotranspiration through afforestation, growing site adapted trees as it has been realized in traditional oasis to shadow the crop and reduce wind velocity (realization of micro climates). Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  29. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 28 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty Only one important way to advance and to be successful? Consider simple wisdoms, often ignored! • Selection & Implementation of an appropriate irrigation technology must consider long-term maintenance costs. • Calculate advantages and disadvantages of environmental impacts (e.g. by Environmental Impact Assessments - EIA) under estimation of long-term economical AND ecological consequential costs! Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  30. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 29 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty Only one important way to advance and to be successful? Consider simple wisdoms, often ignored! • Be aware that sustainable use of Local Public Goods (LPGs) is non-profit-oriented! • Buy what you plan to consume and use what you buy! • Choose & Buy organically grown foods, help create and sustain YOUR local markets! Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  31. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 30 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty Only one important way to advance and to be successful? Consider simple wisdoms, often ignored! • Not only „food security“ as a result of foreign aid is important! • But rather „food self-sufficiency“ prevent from dependency! Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  32. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 31 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty Latest Background Materials and Publications: • Social Watch Report 2003 - The Poor and the Market (with special focus on the unacknowledged social implications of the General Agreement on Trade in Servises (GATS) and International development policies, incl. PPPs and PSPs). • Intern. Journ. of Water Resources Development, Vol. 19, No. 2, June 2003 (with special focus on Public-Private-Partnership in the MENA countries / Middle East a. North Africa). • Innovative Approaches to Agricultural Water Use for Improving Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa, Working Paper 55, IWMI (last issue). Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  33. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 32 Dr. H. Kehl Key issues and possible ways out of poverty Latest Background Materials and Publications: • Report on the „Agricultural Extension Policy of Ghana“by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Ghana, July 2002. • Water from (Wast)Water - The Dependable Water Resource,by Takashi Asano, 2001, Stockholm Water Prize Laureate Lecture. • Agriculture: Re-adaptation to the Environment,by Annette Huber-Lee and Eric Kemp-Bendict, 2003. • Water for People - Water for Life,The United Nations World Water Development Report, World Water Assessment Programme (UNESCO-WWAP) 2003. Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  34. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 33 Dr. H. Kehl Questions and Discussion of Today 1 Traditional and modern agriculture under the pressure of human growth. What are the limitations, advantages and disadvantages under the precondition of limited water and soil resources? 2 Self-restriction and self-sufficiency or „food-security“? Re-Adaptation to the environment through sustainable use of water resources and well adapted small-scale agriculture. What could be the right way? Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  35. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 34 Dr. H. Kehl Questions and Discussion of Today 3 Possible Impacts of SAPs and GATS on YOUR Country, especially regarding Water Management and its long-term Implications on the sustainability of ecosystems. 4 A Precondition of Successful Integrated Ground Water Management is a High-Degree-Transparency of sence making processes, especially important for lower-level people. What have be, and what should be done in YOUR country? Where are the deficits and what are the reasons? Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH

  36. Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management 35 Dr. H. Kehl Questions and Discussion of Today 5 Peter Gleick (Senior Researcher of the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Society) pointed out - among other things - that: „The institutions responsible for building and managing water infrastructure shouldn‘t be responsible for doing long-term planning“ and „There is no such thing as a free market for water, so water transfers should be encouraged but carefully monitored and evaluated.“ What is your oppinion? Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH