Coaching Job Skills Week (10)
Introduction • It is the responsibility of the management to utilize available resources to train, qualify, and develop their employees. • Morale, productivity, and professionalism will normally be high in those organizations that employ a sound OJT program.
Overview of training • Overview of training • The key to training small groups is preparation, planning and presentation • skills. This module looks at all three and then at evaluation methods to • improve the “three P’s”.
Identifying training needs • To identify a training need you must determine the differences between what people actually do in a job(current performance) and what people should do in performing the job.(desired performance) • Comparing between current performance and desired performance
continued • There are many reasons why a training need might arise: • Not know what to do • Know what to do but do not have the required skill • Have the skills and knowledge but are not performing at the standard their organisation requires • Not care about work performance
Why is it the best training method? • On-the-job training (OJT) is one of the best training methods because it is planned, organized, and conducted at the employee's worksite. • OJT will generally be the primary method used for broadening employee skills and increasing productivity. • It is particularly appropriate for developing proficiency skills unique to an employee's job
Strategy for training process • 1. Don’t take the need for employee training lightly • If you do not offer your employees the training they need to perform their jobs safely, you can be held liable for negligence. • The ability of your employees to undertake their jobs to their full abilities will ultimately benefit the bottom line of your business
cont. • 2. Define the training need • Be alert as to the need for training within your organisation. For example: • Be aware of any plans for expansion or changes in technology which might require new skills • within the organisation. • Identify any operating problems, the outcome of inadequate performance, which would be • corrected by training. • Use job analysis and performance appraisal to identify individual training needs.
cont • 3. Prepare yourself for the training session • Although you may be completely familiar with all aspects of a given job, it is essential to make • adequate preparations before attempting to instruct others. For example, determine how much skill you want the trainees to acquire by what date; break the job down into its various components; • isolate and write down the key points; have the right equipment and materials ready; and make • sure the workplace is in order.
cont • 4. Prepare the trainees • Some employees do not necessarily want to learn; others may even have a fear of learning. • Hence, it is essential to put the trainees at ease and to foster an interest in the task by explaining • the purpose of the training, what is going to be done and how the trainees and the organisation will • benefit from it.
cont. • 5. Find out what the trainees already know • Check on what the employees can already do – you can then build upon that knowledge. You • don’t want to waste time teaching employees something they already know, but you cannot always • assume that they really know what they say they know.
cont. • 6. Present the task step by step • Explain how, and wherever possible, demonstrate what has to be done and how. Instruct clearly, • completely and patiently. Pace your instruction carefully – one step at a time, and move on to the • next step when you are sure each employee has absorbed what has been taught. Emphasise the • key points. Encourage questions if something is not understood.
cont. • 7. Check for understanding • Having explained the task, let the trainees demonstrate the job to you, explaining each key point in • turn. This is important. Unless they can tell you the key points as they proceed, you can never be • sure they have grasped the message. If no errors are made – fine. If an error is made, interrupt • immediately and patiently go over that point. Continue in this way until you are sure the • employees have mastered the entire process.
cont. • 8. Have the trainees practice the skill • Practice will help to consolidate newly acquired skills. Under supervision, get the employees to • practice each stage until the required standards of speed and accuracy are achieved. • A • progressive approach should be used. That is, when any two successive stages can be done • separately at the required standard, have the employees practice them jointly until the desired • standard for both steps is reached. Then the third step can be added, then the fourth, etc until the • entire task is mastered.
cont. • 9. Put the trainees to work • When you feel sure that the employees have mastered the skills, put them to work on their own. • Designate to whom they go for help if required. Check progress frequently, particularly in the early • stages. Retrain wherever necessary and be friendly and encouraging in your manner. As the • employees become more confident, the need for coaching should diminish and finally the • necessity to follow up on this task should cease completely.
What makes an effective trainer? • An effective trainer encourages learning and creates an environment that facilitates learning. The first step in conducting any type of training is to develop a sense of mutual trust and respect.
Effective trainers: • Effective trainers: • ➤ Know their subject • ➤ Draw upon learner’s experience • ➤ Inform learners of expectations • ➤ Prepare the session carefully • ➤ Develop learning materials to encourage learner participation • ➤ Sequence information logically • ➤ Can show how to transfer learning for use in other situations
cont • ➤ Are well organised and give clear presentations. They structure materials and the training so it is easy to follow and makes sense. • Are effective communicators • ➤ Use humour in learning • ➤ Provide opportunities for practice • ➤ Give and receive appropriate feedback • ➤ Can motivate learners through a combination of methods, • resources and activities • ➤ Check for understanding • ➤ Check learner’s needs have been met
Training Methods • there are a few different types of training methods: • Demonstrations • Role Plays • Discussions • Case study • Field trips • Assignment, project • work based learning
The introduction to the training sessions • When planning training session, use the following example to help with your introduction; • Interest How will you create interest? • Need Why do they need to know? • Topic What will the session be about? • Range What will you be covering? • Outcomes What will they achieve? • Assessment How will they be assessed?
The body of your training session • The trainer presents or demonstrates the new skills or information. • Participants ( trainees) apply or use the new skills and information in an appropriate activity. • The trainer summarizes the main points • The trainer asks questions to check that participants understand the new skills • The trainer observes the participants to check that they can use the new skills.
The conclusion to your training sessions • At the end of the session we sign OFF • O Outcomes • F Feedback • F Future • Outcomes: Review the session outcomes and find out if they been achieved. • Feedback : this a two way process, and starts giving feedback to participants individually and as a group. • future: Suggest how today’s learning links into future career options.
Structuring the session • To help you plan a good introduction- • G Get he learner’s attention, interest and involvement • L Link with things the learner may already have experienced. • O Outcomes of the session • S Structure of the session • S Stimulate motivation
Learning • There • are three main styles of learning. Many people prefer only one learning style, but in different situations will use a combination of styles. The three • styles are: • ➤ Visual • ➤ Auditory • ➤ Kinesthetic.
Visual Learners • Visual • These learners like reading, television and looking at maps, plans, cartoons, and photos. The training words, “see, appear, picture, make clear, over view” appeal to them. They probably have strong spelling and writing skills, may not talk much, and dislike listening for lengthy periods. In training, use: • ➤ Posters, charts and graphs • ➤ Visual displays • ➤ Variety of colours and shape • ➤ Booklets, brochures and handouts.
Auditory • Auditory • Auditory learners learn by listening. They love to talk, are attracted to sound and distracted by noise, and prefer to hear things, rather then read them. In training, use: • ➤ Question and answers • ➤ Lectures and stories • ➤ Audio tapes • ➤ Discussion pairs or groups • ➤ Variety in tone, rate, pitch and volume
Kinesthetic • Kinesthetic • These learners learn by doing. They move around a lot, tap pens and/or shift in their seat. They want lots of breaks, enjoy games and don’t really like reading. They remember best by practice. In training use: • ➤ Team activities • ➤ Hands-on experience • ➤ Role plays • ➤ Note taking • ➤ Emotional discussions. • Use a variety of the techniques listed above to ensure you cater for all
Principles of adult learning • Principles of adult learning • We can summarise the principles of adult learning by using the following • acronym: • MAPFORM • M meaningful material must be used • Active participation should be encouraged • P rimacy and recentcy—people best remember the first and last things learnt • Feedback is essential • Opportunity for practice must be given to learners • Rewards can be tangible or intangible • M ulti-sensory learning should be used