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Properties of Materials. Chapter 2. Competencies. Define Stress, Strain, True Stress and Engineering Stress, Yield Strength, and Compression Calculate Stress, Strain, True Stress and Engineering Stress, Yield Strength, Safety Factor and Compression

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competencies
Competencies
  • Define Stress, Strain, True Stress and Engineering Stress, Yield Strength, and Compression
  • Calculate Stress, Strain, True Stress and Engineering Stress, Yield Strength, Safety Factor and Compression
  • List and describe the 4 categories of chemical bonds.
  • Define material fatigue and creep
  • List materials used to produce iron leading to steel.

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structure of matter
STRUCTURE OF MATTER
  • All properties of materials are a function of their structure. If the atomic structure, bonding structure, crystal structure, and the imperfections in the material are known, the properties of the material can be determined.
  • Matter is composed of atoms, which are the smallest units of individual elements. Atoms are composed of proton, neutrons, and electrons.
  • Atoms can combine to form molecules, which are the smallest units of chemical compounds.
  • The atoms are held together by chemical “bonds.”

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categories of chemical bonds
Categories of chemical bonds
  • In chemical bonds, atoms can either transfer or share their valence electrons
  • ionic – In the extreme case where one or more atoms lose electrons and other atoms gain them in order to produce a noble gas electron configuration, the bond is called an ionic bond.
  • covalent - Covalent chemical bonds involve the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms, in contrast to the transfer of electrons in ionic bonds. Such bonds lead to stable molecules if they share electrons in such a way as to create a noble gas configuration for each atom.
  • metallic -
  • van der waal -

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states of matter
STATES OF MATTER
  • Gaseous State – individual atoms or molecules have little or not attraction to each other. They are in constant motion and are continuously bouncing off one other.
  • Boiling Point – The temperature at which gaseous particles begin to bond to each other. To continue into the liquid state the heat of vaporization must be removed or to move from liquid to gas the heat must be added.
  • Liquid State – having bonds of varying lengths relating to the viscosity of a material
  • Solid State – has a definite structure
  • Melting point – the temperature at which enough energy to break one bond of a crystal. All true solids have a definite melting point.

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nucleation of grains
NUCLEATION OF GRAINS
  • The phenomenon when the temperature of molten material is lowered to the melting point, little crystals or nuclei are formed at many points in the liquid.
  • After the grains have been nucleated and grown together to form a solid, the process of grain growth occurs. Slow cooling to room temperature allows for larger grains to form, while rapid cooling only allows for small grains to form.

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nucleation of grains8
NUCLEATION OF GRAINS
  • Atoms or particles align themselves into planes within each crystal, there is a uniform distance between particles. These plains can slide over each other, the more ductile the material becomes, the more ways slip can occur.
  • A materials density, ductility, and malleability are a factor or crystalline structure resulting in planes for slip to occur.

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strength properties
STRENGTH PROPERTIES

Stress - defined as the load per unit cross section of area.

  • Compression
  • Torsional
  • Tension – forces pulling an object in opposite directions. If the load or force pulling on the material is divided by the cross-sectional area of the bar, the result is the tensile stress applied to the sample

AREA:

Width x Height

Pi r2

  • Stress generally given in psi (english) or Pascal (metric)

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problems
Problems
  • If a tensile force of 500 lb is placed on a 0.75-in. diameter bar, what is the stress on the bar?

1130 lb/in^2

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problems11
Problems
  • What is the tensile strength of a metal if a 0.505 in.-diameter bar withstands a load of 15,000 lb before breaking?

75,000 lbs/ in^2

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problems12
Problems
  • A cable in a motor hoist must lift a 700-lb engine. The steel cable is 0.375 in. in diameter. What is the stress in the cable?

6338 lb/in2

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strength properties13
STRENGTH PROPERTIES

Strain - the elongation of a specimen per unit of original length

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strength properties14
STRENGTH PROPERTIES
  • Elastic limit - The maximum applied stress that metals and other materials can be stretch and rebound in much the same manner as a rubber band also called proportional limit.
  • The rest of the curve, to the right of the elastic limit, is the plastic region.

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strength properties15
STRENGTH PROPERTIES
  • Tensile strength – or ultimate strength is the maximum stress that a bar will withstand before failing and is “e” shown as point T on the curve.
  • Rupture strength - or breaking strength is the stress at which at a bar breaks, point R on Figure 2-16.
  • Yield strength - the engineering design strength of the material
    • The point intersection determined by measuring a distance of 0.002 inch/inch on the strain axis, then drawing a straight line parallel to the straight-line portion of the curve. (Figure 2-17).

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problem
Problem

4. If a steel cable is rated to take 800 lb and the steel has a yield strength of 90,000 psi, what is the diameter of the cable? (Ignore safety factor.)

D = 0.11 in.

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strength properties17
STRENGTH PROPERTIES

Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s modulus) is the change in stress divided by the change in strain while the material is in the elastic region.

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problem18
Problem

5. If a tensile part in a machine is designed to hold 25,000 lb and the part is made from a material having yield strength of 75,000 psi, what diameter must the part have?

=

=

D=.65

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strength properties19
STRENGTH PROPERTIES

Compression is loading a specimen by squeezing the material.

If a compressive force of 2200 lb is applied to a concrete column having a diameter of 6 in., what is the stress on the column?

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strength properties20
STRENGTH PROPERTIES

Shear is defined as the application ofopposing forces, slightly offset to each other (Figure 2-21).

Torsion is the twisting of an object (Figure 2-23).

Torque = Length x Force

Usually expressed in Ft. lbs

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problem21
Problem

What force must be applied to the end of a 14-in. pipe wrench if a torque of 75 ft-lb is needed?

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problem22
Problem

A shear force of 1800 lb is required to cut a bar having a diameter of 0.400 in. What is the shear strength of the material being cut?

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surface properties
SURFACE PROPERTIES
  • Hardness is a measure of a material’s resistance to surface deformation.
  • One of the most common is the Rockwell test.
  • The Rockwell test makes use of three different indenters or points (Figure 2-28):
    • 1/16-inch steel ball
    • 1/8-inch ball, and
    • black diamond conical or “brale” point.
  • In reporting a Rockwell harness number, the scale must be stated along with the hardness value

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surface properties24
SURFACE PROPERTIES
  • The B-scale is used for softer materials (such as aluminum, brass, and softer steels). It employs a hardened steel ball as the indenter and a 100kg weight to obtain a value expressed as "HRB".
  • The C-scale, for harder materials, uses a diamond cone, known as a Brale indenter and a 150kg weight to obtain a value expressed as "HRC".

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surface properties25
SURFACE PROPERTIES
  • Brinell Hardness (BHN). A second common hardness test used to test metals is the Brinell hardness test (Figure 2-30).
  • In the Brinell test, a 10-millimetre case-hardened steel ball is driven into the surface of the metal by one of three standard loads: 500, 1500, or 3000 kilograms. Once the ball is pushed into the material by the specified load, the diameter of the indentation left in the metal (Figure 2-31) measured in millimeters

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surface properties26
SURFACE PROPERTIES

Impact

  • As opposed to steady-state test (tensile strength, compressive strength, shear strength, and torsion strength) Impact strength is determined by a sudden blow to the material. Materials
  • The speed at which the load is applied is known as the strain rate and is measured in inches per minute, meters per minute, millimeters per second or similar units.
  • The impact strength of a metal can be determined by using on e of three methods: Izod, Charpy, Tensile impact

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surface properties27
SURFACE PROPERTIES

Creep

  • The elongation caused by the steady and continuous application of a load over a long period of time. The load is applied continuously for many months to many years. The amount of creep depends on the elasticity of the material, its yield strength, the stress applied, and temperature.

Fatigue

  • The failure of a material due to cyclic or repeated stresses

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properties of material iron and steel
Properties of Material (Iron and Steel)

Ferrous (Contains Iron) Non Ferrous (No Iron)

  • Raw materials used to produce iron
    • Iron ore - mined in various forms (65% pure iron)
    • Limestone - acts as a flux to help remove impurities
    • Coke - specialized coal (burns hotter than coal)

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properties of material
Properties of Material
  • Blast Furnace
    • Materials brought to top of furnace
    • Heated air 1100o F blown into furnace
    • Pig iron drained off into carts
    • Slag tapped off other side

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types of steel making furnaces
TYPES OF STEEL MAKING FURNACES

Used to burn the carbon out of the steel

  • Open Hearth – Hot air blown over the top of the steel (ceased in the 1940’s)
  • Bessemer – hot air blown from the bottom of the crucible (used between 1890-1950)
  • Electric – requires a tremendous amount of power
    • Continuous arc between electrode and metal
    • Electrodes made of carbon
    • Produce 60 to 90 ton of very clean steel/day
  • Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF)
    • Uses pure O2 at 180 psi
    • Refine 250 tons/hour

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properties of material31
Properties of Material

Alloying element - 10XX - Carbon Content by weight (points of carbon)

Low Carbon Steel - > .25% carbon

Medium Carbon Steel - .25 -to .55% carbon

High Carbon Steel - < .55% carbon

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properties of material32
Properties of Material

Stainless Steels

  • Characterized by corrosion resistance, high strength, ductility, and high chromium content

Tool and Die Steels

  • High strength, impact toughness, and wear resistance at room and elevated temperatures

Non ferrous metals (no iron as base metal)

  • Corrosion resistance, high thermal and electrical conductivity, low density ease of fabrication

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properties of material33
Properties of Material

Aluminum and aluminum alloys (most abundant and metallic element)

  • High strength to weight ratio, resistance to corrosion, electrical/thermal conductivity, ease of formability
  • Uses: containers (cans), transportation (aerospace aircraft, busses, and marine crafts), electrical (economical and nonmagnetic conductor)
  • About 79 percent of Boeing 757 is made up of aluminum
  • Can be heat treated for different properties

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properties of material34
Properties of Material

Magnesium and magnesium alloys (third most abundant metallic element)

  • lightest engineering metal
  • has good vibration damping character
  • not sufficiently strong in its pure form so must be alloyed

Copper and Copper alloys

  • Among best conductors of elect/heat
  • Usually used where electrical and corrosion resistant properties are needed

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properties of material35
Properties of Material

Brass - (Copper and Zinc) one of the earliest developed alloys

Bronze - (Copper and tin)

  • For electrical conductors refined to 99.95 percent purity

Nickel and Nickel alloys

  • Major alloying element (strength, toughness, corrosion resistance)
  • Food handling equipment
  • Chemical processing equipment
  • It is magnetic (used in solenoids for this reason, also electromagnetic)

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