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Life of the ProphetPart 41st to 2nd Year of Hijrah Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) 53-55 yrs February 13, 2011 Intermediate Religion By: Sarah Kassim
BUT THE DISBELIEVERS WON'T LEAVE THEM ALONE • The Muslims, having freedom of worship at last, were full of enthusiasm. • The Jewish tribes in Medina were very influential and strong as a group at that time, and they welcomed the Prophet at first. • The treaty called solemnly for the defense of each other's people against attacks from outside force. It was a mutual defense agreement or a treaty for: • the protection of life, • the protection of property, • the protection of women and liberty, and • the guarantee of peace. • The treaty gave the Muslims a welcome feeling of security and strength.
TREATY BETWEEN MUSLIMS AND JEWISH TRIBES • There were three Jewish tribes in Medina. They were affluent, controlling the area financially, and looked upon as a powerful body and a local might. • They were Benu Qainuqaa', Benu Nadheer, and Benu Quraidha. • They lived off the local warring Arabic tribes by lending at high interest rate, inciting or subtly encouraging discord. • At first the Jewish tribes looked upon the Muslims favorably and signed treaties of mutual defense with them. Soon after, however, they changed their ways and became adversaries to Muhammad (pbuh) and the Muslims.
Quraish will not Give Up • Medina was near this highway, so the caravans were a fairly easy target for the Muslims. Not only that, but the caravans had also become a means of challenge. Quraish wanted to challenge the Prophet and the Muslims. They wanted to keep reminding the Muslims that Quraish was still alive and well, dominant and strong, and that it was still a grave threat to the Muslims
AT THE SAME TIME • More Revelations kept coming to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and the Muslims were taught, lovingly, diligently and regularly by the Messenger of Allah, himself, no less. • One Revelation was in regard to fasting, which became obligatory during the month of Ramadhan. • Another Revelation was in regard to Zakat, which laid the foundation of the finance of the Muslim Ummah (society). • Also, after a specific Revelation, the Muslims started to pray toward the Ka'ba rather than toward Jerusalem, as they used to do before. As a result, the Ka'ba in Mecca became the focus, the focus toward which every Muslim turns when he prays, no matter where he happens to be in the world.
A'ISHA BECOMES A WIFE • Muhammad (pbuh) had been a widower for some time and he lived at home with Fatima, his last unmarried daughter, and his beloved Ali. • A'isha was the daughter of Abu Bakr. She was in her early teens, vivacious, jubilant, happy, and cheerful. She became the Prophet's wife after a long engagement. • The Prophet (pbuh) was 54 years old when he married A'isha. Khadija, his first wife, had died five years earlier.
PROBLEMS FACING Prophet MUHAMMAD (pbuh) AT THIS PERIOD • The disbelievers of Mecca (Quraish) and others. • The Jewish tribes in Medina and their scheming. • The disbelievers of Medina and surrounding area. • Directing a fast budding Muslim Ummah: Administration, decisions, formatting, and shaping it according to the Islamic Shari'ah
Quraish Fears • Two years passed since the emigration of the Prophet from Mecca to Medina. • During these two years serious problems faced the disbelievers of Quraish, it was a fast increase in the number of converts to Islam. • This meant a serious threat to the social relations of the Meccans and power. • Another problem feared by Quraish was the success of the Prophet making treaties with the local tribes in Medina.
Abu Sufyan’s Caravan • Abu Sufyan, a self-appointed en enemy of Islam, was to lead one of the biggest caravans in the area. • The caravan was headed towards Syria and was well supplied with guards, guides, rich with merchandise and consisted of a large number of camels. • Learning of such a caravan belonging to the enemy, the Prophet took the challenge and wanted to scare and confuse those involved in such a caravan. • The move was to late and the caravan was able to escape Medina without a scratch. • As the caravan was heading back to Mecca from Syria, Abu Sufyan became wary. • As Abu Sufyan learned that the Prophet along with three hundred Muslims were moving quickly towards the caravan, he was able to quickly redirect it to a safer route.
Abu Sufyan Spreads News • Nervous and short-breathed Abu Sufyan shares the news with the Meccans (Quraish) and they become furious and can not believe. • Like Abu Sufyan, Abu Jahl was also a power hungry and self-appointed leader of opposition, and a serious enemy of Islam. • When he hears the news, he right away urges combat. • The Meccans mobilized a army of one thousand fighters, force well supplied with arms (swords, shields (700 fighters were on camels and 300 were on horses). • They all marched towards Medina and stopped at a place called BADR. • When they reached Badr, good news was received and that was that the large caravan was safe.
Abu Jahl Insisted on Not Returning • Abu Jahl insisted on not returning; He said, “ WE WILL CAMP FOR THREE DAYS. WE WILL SLAUGHTER CAMELS, FEAST, GET DRUNK, AND BE ENTERTAINED BY MUSICIANS. ALL THE ARABS WILL HEAR ABOUT US, AND THEY WILL GET AFRAID OF US FOREVER AFTERWARDS.”
Muslims Take the Challenge • When the Muslims could not intercept the caravan of Abu Sufyan, they heard of Abu Jahl’s big army moving towards them. • After discussing this matter with the Muslims, the Prophet got a unanimous approval for taking the challenge. • The Muslims marched towards Badr. • It was winter time, the weather was fairly cold, dreary and rainy.
At Badr • The Muslims so small in number (313 men, 70 camels, and no more than 2 horses, little arms, mainly swords and little armor and shields), ragged, not well armed and settled at the lower part of the ground made Quraish feel so strong and excited. • Quriash laughed at the Muslims with scom, and thought; “LET HIM CALL HIS LORD, LET US SEE IF HIS LORD WILL SAVE HIM AND HIS COMPANIONS.” • They said this mockingly to themselves.
Prophet’s Reaction of Both Side • After seeing the extreme difference between the two sides, the Prophet became worried, very concerned and anxiety overtook him. • The forces were very unequal, not only in number but in arms too. • The Prophet was at his tent, prayed and kept praying over and over again, from the bottom of his heart. “O’ ALLAH! QURAISH HAS COME WITH THEIR FRIENDS TO BELIE YOUR MESSENGER. O’ALLAH! WE NEED YOUR HELP WHICH YOU HAVE PROMISED. O’ALLAH! SHOULD THIS SMALL BAND OF OURS PERISH, THERE WOULD BE NONE TO WORSHIP YOU.”
Answered Prayers • The Prophet so deep in his prayers that a slight nap overtook him. • Once awake, he was seen happy and cheerful. • He came out with the glad tiding; “Allah had answered his prayer. The Muslims would be victorious in the battle ahead. He who would be killed, however, will be honored with heavens.” • It was the 17th of Ramadhan and the Muslims were fasting.
The Fight Breaks Out • Ali (the beloved cousin of the Prophet), Hamza (his Uncle) and Ubaida (a relative of his), were called upon for a duel by Ut’ba, Shaiba and Waleed (these three were exceptional fighters of Quraish and were highly respected for their power and prestige). • The Muslims concentrated on the leaders of Quraish with the encouragement from the Prophet (pbuh). • Abu Jahl, the enemy of Islam, though heavily protected with armour was fatally wounded, fell off his horse, in severe shock and was covered with blood to have slow agonizing death. • Bilal, previously a slave, was able to finish off his former master Ibn Khalaf. • The Muslims pressed relentlessly so, and accomplished the seemingly impossible, 11 out of the 14 leaders of Quraish were killed.
Battle of Badr Continued • The three Muslims stood out as a shining example not only for their tremendous fighting skills, but their courage. • These three were, Ali, Hamza and Abu Dajana. • Ali, was 25 years old. • 70 people from the enemies side were killed, more than 30 of them were killed by Ali. • The Muslims side only lost 6 people.
News of Muslims Win Spreads to Mecca • The Pagans of Quraish entered Mecca with shame, disgrace, gloomy and depressed. • The mood was gloomy, ugly and the women became intensely unhappy.
Abu Lahab Dies • When Abu Lahab first heard the news of the Meccan defeat at Badr he simply denied it, he did not believe it. • He thought such thing could not possible happen. • It shattered him to pieces and crushed him psychologically, soon after he got sick and died. • Abu Lahab and Abu Jahl were Uncles of the Prophet, one died during the battle of Badr and the other soon after.
Ali Becomes A Husband • Ali, the Prophet’s (pbuh) beloved cousin, was in his mid-twenties, handsome, masculine and strong. • His wife was the lovely and charming daughter of the Prophet (pbuh). • She earned a special honor, labeled by the Prophet (pbuh), “the Queen of the women of the world.” • Ali and Fatima lived happy with each other and their house was the focus of the spiritual goodness.
During This Period • Eid-Prayers and Eid Zakat were instituted during this period. • Islam and Muslims had become more of a center of attention than ever before. • Badr and the brilliant success of the Muslims proved to be a turning point.