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Leadership Behavior and Management Styles. Leadership vs Management. “There is only one manager, but anyone can be a leader if they act on their good ideas!” Leadership: Influence based to reach a goal Informal designation: independent of management Achieved positions; special skills

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Leadership Behavior and Management Styles


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    1. Leadership Behavior and Management Styles Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    2. Leadership vs Management • “There is only one manager, but anyone can be a leader if they act on their good ideas!” • Leadership: • Influence based to reach a goal • Informal designation: independent of management • Achieved positions; special skills • Examples! Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    3. Leadership vs Management • Management: • Authority based: appointed • Formally designated • Assigned position • Replaced if poor manager; good leadership skills help! Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    4. Great Man/Trait Earliest theories “I was born to lead!” Have innate characteristics Not “accepted today (Great Man theory Trait/attribute-from Great Man Personal leadership characteristics “looks, walks, talks like a leader” Limited Does not consider situation Does not consider follower Leadership Theories Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    5. Situational Varies with situation considers structure, atmosphere and leader’s characteristics Contingency Different situation require different leadership types Keys to the above theories: Effective leadership style depends upon the situation; what is successful in one situation, may not be effective in the next! Path-goal (describes 4 different leadership behaviors) Minimizes goal obstruction; rewards followers; focuses on goal achievement (Directive, Achievement, Supportive, Participative) Remember & understand these terms! Leadership Theory Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    6. Leadership Theory cont. • Tri-dimensional=Situational approach! • Model that predicts which leadership style most effective in situations. Based on followers maturity (note term “tri-dimensional” not used in text) p. 9 • Involves telling, selling, participating and delegating! • By Hersey and Blanchard! • Transactional/Transformational • Mutual benefits, caretaker • Influence perceptions • Foster a sense of direction! • What is focus of transformational leader? Motivate followers to perform at full potential; put aside self interest for good of group and provide direction. Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    7. What leadership qualities do you possess?? Use the next slide to consider your own attributes as a leader/manager! Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    8. Leadership Qualities and Behaviors Integrity Think critically Courage Solve problems Initiative Respect person Energy Listen Optimism Skillful Communication Perseverance Set goals Balance Envision future Ability to handle stress Develop oneself Self-awareness Coach others Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    9. Leadership Styles and Effective Management(Behavioral) • Leadership styles • Authoritarian • Strong control, directive • Downward and directive • Democratic • Subordinates involved in decision-making • Lengthy process • Laissez-Faire • Little or no direction • Maximum freedom for individuals • *Multicratic- Adapt the leadership style needed for particular situation!! Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    10. Consider: Ann is a nurse manager for a 26 bed ICU. She is people and relationship oriented. Ann promotes and facilitates group discussion and decision making. Teamwork is the focus for any project and she provides the necessary resources. She wants everyone to have a role on the unit and input into decisions. • What leadership style is exhibited? • Is this style effective in all situations? • What leadership style do you prefer? Democratic No, not in situations where immediate action needed. Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    11. Power and Leadership/Management Styles • Power…what is it?? • Influence of others through persuasion or coercion • Non-static; ever changing • Power sources: legitimate (authority) • Referent (symbol of leader) • Reward (favor granting) • Coercive (punishment) • Expert (special knowledge) • Informational (similar to expert) • Connection (powerful associations) Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    12. Power and Leadership/Management Styles • Power…answer these questions! • The nurse who can accurately interpret an ECG has ____ power. • The nurse manager who can write a letter of commendation about your performance in the unit newsletter has ____ power. • The nurse who knows about a possible opening the critical care unit that you might want has _____ power. • Your nurse manager can authority to grant you a salary increase; this manager has ______ power. Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    13. Power and Leadership/Management Styles • Power • The nurse who can accurately interpret an ECG has EXPERT power. • The nurse manager who can write a letter of commendation about your performance in the unit newsletter has REWARD power. • The nurse who knows about a possible opening the critical care unit that you might want has CONNECTION power. (informational) • Your nurse manager has authority to grant you a salary increase; this manager has LEGITIMATE power. (reward) Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    14. Give and example in which “coercive” power (punishment) might be appropriately used in the nursing profession. Refer to text…a nurse who is abusing drugs faces loss of license, job, salary…patient safety is priority! Referent power…how might referent power influence your career as a nurse? Text…an example…as a nurse you carefully follow directions of your assigned department head…that individual possess symbol of power! Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    15. Power and Leadership/Management Styles • Empowerment • Share power with others; enables them to act; transformational leadership • Delegates much authority for decision- making • Encourages others to excel! Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    16. The Effective Follower! • What is the effective follower? • Perceives the relationship between institutional goals and personal goals • Views leader as working toward both • Need to both a leader and a follower (interchangeable!) Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    17. Qualities of a Good Follower!Know these characteristics! • Invest self in the organization and its goals • Know your responsibilities as a follower • Job description • Report to whom? • Evaluated by whom? • What is the leader’s role? • Support leader and the group • Follow channels of communication • Stimulate leader and the group! Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    18. Developing Your Leadership Role and Skills! • Evaluate your own leadership qualities! • (Leadership exercises) • Strengths • Weaknesses Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    19. Developing Your Leadership Role and Skills! • Evaluate your own leadership qualities! • Ways to enhance your own personal power: • Personal physical resources • Knowledge and competence • Flexibility • Self-confidence and decisiveness • Alliances • Education and practice! Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    20. Which leadership style is considered “people oriented? Laissez-faire Authoritarian Coercive Democratic A nurse with the responsibility of deciding the number of staff member will be assigned to a unit has what kind of power? Legitimate Reward Coercive Referent Which method is BEST assess one’s effectiveness as a leader? Review amount of formal education Ask opinion from friend Wait for input from others Review personal interactions Test Your Understanding Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    21. Which of the following factors MOST affects one’s effectiveness as a manager? Number of people managed Salary received Status within organization Leadership style Test Your Understanding! Which description characterizes the path-goal theory of leadership? • Identifies common traits exhibited by leaders • Reflects four behaviors: telling, selling, participating, and delegating • Minimizes goal obstruction and reward followers • Born with leadership qualities Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    22. Which of the following factors MOST affects one’s effectiveness as a manager? Number of people managed Salary received Status within organization Leadership style * Which description characterizes the path-goal theory of leadership? Identifies common traits exhibited by leaders Reflects four behaviors: telling, selling, participating, and delegating Minimizes goal obstruction and reward followers* Born with leadership qualities Which leadership style is considered “people oriented”? Laissez-faire Authoritarian Coercive Democratic* A nurse with the responsibility of deciding the number of staff member will be assigned to a unit has what kind of power? Legitimate* Reward* Coercive Referent Which method is BEST assess one’s effectiveness as a leader? Review amount of formal education Ask opinion from friend Wait for input from others Review personal interactions* Test Your Understanding! Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

    23. The End Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC