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Chapter 9 Perception and Attribution. Objectives. Define perception and explain the perceptual process Identify the sources of misinterpretation in cross-cultural interactions Understand both the benefits and the drawbacks of the perceptual process. 9 -1.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Chapter 9

Perception

and

Attribution

slide2

Objectives

  • Define perception and explain the perceptual process
  • Identify the sources of misinterpretation in cross-cultural interactions
  • Understand both the benefits and the drawbacks of the perceptual process

9 -1

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

slide3

…Objectives

  • Recognize common perceptual errors
  • Describe the Johari window
  • Explain attribution theory
  • Understand the relevance of perception and attribution for managers

9 -2

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

slide4

Can You Understand This?

Subject: The paomnnehil pweor of the hmuan mnid. Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.   Amzanig, huh?

9 -3

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

perception defined
Perception - Defined

Perception is the process by which we

select,

organize, and

evaluate

the stimuli in our

environment to make

it meaningful for ourselves

9 -4

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

slide6

Selective Attention

Unnoticed Stimuli

Perceived Stimuli (Selective attention)

Salience

9 -5

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

slide7

Factors that AffectWhat We Perceive

Internal

Motives

Values

Interests

Attitudes

Past experiences

Expectations

External

Motion

Intensity

Size

Novelty

Salience

9 -6

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

patterns that help us organize stimuli
Patterns that Help Us Organize Stimuli
  • Opposites – “pros and cons”
  • Cause-and-effect relationships – “If the clients asked lots of questions, that means I’ll make the sale”
  • Schemas – “my view of what a boss does”

9 -7

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

slide9

Schemas - Defined

  • Schemas are mental maps of different concepts, events, or types of stimuli that contain both the attributes of the concept and the relationship among the attributes
  • Once established, they
  • determine what stimuli
  • we attend to and remember

9 -8

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

slide10

Social Identity Theory - Defined

Based on the belief that people tend:

  • to perceive themselves and others in terms of social categories rather than as individuals (social categorization)
  • to assess the relative worth of groups as well as individuals by comparing them (social comparison)
  • to perceive and respond to the world not as detached observers but in terms of their identity, which depends on the social groups to which they belong (social identification)

9 -9

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

stereotyping defined
Stereotyping - Defined

Stereotyping occurs when we attribute

behavior or attitudes to a person on the

basis of the group or category to which the

person belongs

9 -10

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

slide12

When Is Stereotyping Helpful?

  • Consciously held
  • Descriptive
  • Accurate
  • The “first best guess” about a group/person
  • Modified after further experience and observation

9 -11

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

slide13

Drawbacks of Perception

  • Prevents us from taking in everything we should
  • Makes our interpretations questionable
  • Promotes stereotypes

9 -12

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

slide14

Benefits of Perception

The process of perception limits, selects

and organizes stimuli that would

otherwise overwhelm us

9 -13

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

slide15

Perceptual Distortions to Avoid

  • Stereotyping
  • The halo effect
  • Primacy and recency effects
  • Central tendency
  • Contrast effects
  • Projection
  • Self-fulfilling perceptual defenses

9 -14

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

slide16

Johari Window

Known to self

Unknown to self

Arena

Blindspot

Known to others

Façade

Unknown

Unknown to others

9 -15

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

slide17

Sources of Cross-Cultural Misinterpretation

Subconscious cultural blinders

Lack of cultural self-awareness

Projected similarity

9 -16

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

slide18

D.I.E. Model

Teaches people to distinguish among

description, interpretation, and evaluation of

cultural behavior

  • Description: observed fact
  • Interpretation: inferences
  • Evaluation: judgments/feelings

Description is the safest way to avoid errors and

misattributions

9 -17

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

slide19

Attribution Theory - Defined

According to attribution theory, when

people observe behavior, they attempt to

determine whether it is internally or

externally caused

People look for information about

consensus, consistency, and

distinctiveness to decide on causation

9 -18

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

attribution theory
…Attribution Theory

9 -19

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

slide21

Self-Serving Bias -Defined

Self-serving bias is the tendency for

people to attribute their successes to

internal factors while blaming external

factors for their failures

9 -20

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

slide22

Fundamental Attribution Error -Defined

Fundamental attribution error is the

tendency to underestimate the influence of

external factors and overestimate the

influence of internal factors when making

judgments about the behavior of others

9 -21

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E

Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner