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Chapter 31: America on the World Stage, 1899-1909

Chapter 31: America on the World Stage, 1899-1909. By: Sally Jacobson and Jonaki Singh. “Little Brown Brothers” in the Philippines. Filipinos weren’t granted freedom after Spanish American War February 4, 1899- savage war b/n U.S. & Phil.

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Chapter 31: America on the World Stage, 1899-1909

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  1. Chapter 31: America on the World Stage, 1899-1909 By: Sally Jacobson and Jonaki Singh

  2. “Little Brown Brothers” in the Philippines • Filipinos weren’t granted freedom after Spanish American War • February 4, 1899- savage war b/n U.S. & Phil. • 1901- Philippines defeated & McKinley appoints Taft as head of the Philippine Commission • McKinley’s “benevolent assimilation”- included improvements of roads, sanitation, and public health, a good education system, and economic ties through sugar • July 4, 1946- Philippines gains independence

  3. John Hay Defends China (and U.S. interests) • Countries like Japan, Russia and Germany moved into China after 1895 --> America worried about Chinese imperialism & manufacturers feared Europeans would dominate Chinese markets • John Hay issues Open Door Policy (other countries have to respect Chinese rights and idea of fair competition

  4. Hinging the Open Door in China • 1900- super-patriotic group called the “Boxers” killed many foreigners--> Boxer Rebellion • Hay declared Open Door Policy would embrace China’s territorial and commercial integrity

  5. Kicking “Teddy” Roosevelt Upstairs • McKinley was a shoe in for the Election of 1900 b/c he led the U.S. through a war, acquired rich real estate, est. the gold standard, and brought prosperity • Theodore Roosevelt was nominated as V.P. so he wouldn’t pose an authority problem • William Jennings Bryan- Dem. Candidate- supported silver standard & anti-imperialism • Main issue during election was Republican overseas imperialism

  6. Imperialism or Bryanism in 1900? • McKinley & Republicans supported imperialism and gold standard; Bryan was anti-imperialism & supported silver standard • “Bryanism”- Bryan would destroy U.S. prosperity with free-silver policy • McKinley won election of 1900

  7. TR: Brandisher of the Big Stick • September 1901-McKinley is assassinated & TR takes over • Roosevelt disregarded checks and balances system • Roosevelt felt he could take action that wasn’t specifically forbidden in the Constitution

  8. Colombia Blocks the Canal • Spanish-American War--> need for canal through Central America, however: • Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850)- US couldn’t gain exclusive control over a route for the canal • Hay-Pauncefot Treaty- gave US free hand to build and fortify canal • Colombia protested building canal-->US waged treaty which gave 6 mile wide zone for perpetuity in exchange for $10 mil. & annual $250,000 • Colombia rejected treaty--> TR built canal w/o Colombian consent

  9. Uncle Sam Creates Puppet Panama • Panamanians feared US would build canal along Nicaraguan route--> protested • 1903- Bunau-Varilla leads successful revolt • Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty- gave US control of 10-mile-wide around Panama Canal in exchange for $40 million

  10. Completing the Canal and Appeasing Colombia • Rape of Panama--> downfall in relations w/ Latin America • TR’s “Big Brother Policy”- claimed he had received “mandate from civilization” to build canal & Colombia had wronged US by not letting itself be benefitted by canal • 1904- construction of Panama Canal began • 1914- construction completed; $400 mil. spent

  11. TR’s Perversion of Monroe Doctrine • Countries like Venezuela and DR were in debt to European countries--> TR feared that if European nations got involved in Lat. Am., they would stay there & violate Monroe Doctrine • Roosevelt Corollary of the Monroe Doctrine- US could pay LA debt to keep European nations out of LA • “Bad Neighbor” Policy- LA countries hated US for intervening

  12. Roosevelt on the World Stage • 1904- war b/n Japan & Russia broke out b/c Russia refused to withdraw troops from Manchuria & Korea • Japan was defeating Russia until supplies ran low--> asked TR to sponsor peace • 1905- TR made agreement in which Japan got no compensation for losses & received southern 1/2 of Sakhalin • 1906- TR received Nobel Peace Prize, but relations w/ Japan and Russia deteriorated b/c both felt robbed by agreement

  13. Japanese Laborers in California • 1884- Japan lifted ban on emigration--> thousands of Japanese were recruited to work in CA-->faced racism • 1906- San Francisco school board segregated Chinese, Japanese, & Korean students & Japanese were insulted • “Gentlemen’s Agreement”- CA repealed segregation & Japan agreed to stop flow of immigrants • 1908- Root-Takahira Agreement- US & Japan pledged to respect each other’s territorial possessions

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