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The John Adams Presidency. 1797-1801. John Adams 2 nd President. Without George Washington Political Parties Exploded. Federalists and Democratic Republicans are note talking with each other Election between Thomas Jefferson—leading Democratic Republican; John Adams; and Thomas Pickney

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john adams 2 nd president
John Adams 2nd President
  • Without George Washington Political Parties Exploded.
  • Federalists and Democratic Republicans are note talking with each other
  • Election between Thomas Jefferson—leading Democratic Republican; John Adams; and Thomas Pickney
  • Adams earns 71 votes; Jefferson 68 and Pickney 59
  • Adams does not trust his VP--Jefferson
john adams the man
John Adams the Man
  • Long record of patriotism, extensive background
  • Bright and capable, but stubborn and difficult to deal with
  • Tough act to follow in replacing Jefferson

John Adams

adams as president
Adams as President
  • Term was characterized by failure and controversy….
  • Quasi-War with France (XYZ Affair)
  • Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
  • “Midnight Judges”
  • Positive: kept US out of war with France
the xyz affair
The XYZ Affair

Europe’s state early 1800’s

  • Napoleonic Wars
    • War between Napoleon (France) and Europe
    • French Revolution was in full swing
  • France wanted same trade rights as US had set up with Britain
  • Adams sent diplomatsJohn Marshall, Charles Pinckney, and Elridge Gerry to France to negotiate a trade agreement between Napoleonic France and USA
the xyz affair1
The XYZ Affair

The French Insult of US Diplomats

  • The French diplomat sends 3 agents (called X,Y, and Z) to demand a bribe to meet with French diplomats.
  • Americans were insulted by this demand
    • Americans Wanted War with France
    • US Congress cuts off ALL trade with

France

    • US announces the Navy may capture French vessels
    • Adams does not back done…viewed as a hero!
    • “We will spend millions on defense but not one cent on tributes”
alien sedition acts
Alien & Sedition Acts

--War was expected between France & US due to X,Y, Z affair.

--Alien and Sedition Acts were passed to keep refugees from both sides of the French Revolution who came to America from having an influence on the American government.

--Strong anti-French sentiment in US at the time

alien and sedition acts
Alien and Sedition Acts

1. Citizenship wait time changed from 5 to 14 years

2. All Foreigners must register with the Government

3. The President can jail/ expel anyone who threatens the safety of the US

US Sedition Act:

  • Made it illegal to write/speak against the actions of the Gov.

Results of Alien and Sedition Act:

Democratic-Republicans believe that the Alien and Sedition Acts violate the First Amendment and were an invasion of states' rights.

virginia and kentucky resolutions
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
  • Drafted by Jefferson (Kentucky) and Madison (Virginia).
  • Stated the following.

1. The Constitution was a compact

between sovereign states.

2. Each state had "an equal right to judge

for itself" when the Constitution had

been violated.

3. IMPORTANT: A state can declare a law

of Congress unconstitutional.

results of va and ky resolution
Results of VA and KY Resolution
  • Immediate impact was little, with neither state doing anything substantial.
    • Would set a precedent for sectionalism and the states' rights debate later.
  • Will lead to secession of the South in the Civil War