Human Evolution: an overview
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Human Evolution: an overview. Dr Jeremy Pritchard. Hominoid: Great apes and humans Hominid: Closer to us than gorillas and chimps. You Cuz. Humans did not evolve from Apes You are descended from your mother and father

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Dr jeremy pritchard

Human Evolution: an overview

Dr Jeremy Pritchard


Dr jeremy pritchard

  • Hominoid: Great apes and humans

  • Hominid: Closer to us than gorillas and chimps


Dr jeremy pritchard

You Cuz

  • Humans did not evolve from Apes

  • You are descended from your mother and father

  • You are related to your aunt and cousin

Dad Mum Aunt Uncle



Dr jeremy pritchard

Contemporary

animals


Dr jeremy pritchard

Contemporary

animals

Fossils



Dr jeremy pritchard

Locomotion recent common ancestor.


Dr jeremy pritchard

Brachiation recent common ancestor.:

  • Grip

  • Stereo vision


Dr jeremy pritchard

Humerus recent common ancestor.

Femur


Dr jeremy pritchard

1. Chimpanzee 2. recent common ancestor.Australopithecus africanus 3. Homo erectus 4. Homo sapiens


Brain size
Brain size recent common ancestor.


Primate characteristics trends
Primate Characteristics/Trends recent common ancestor.

  • Brains larger than other animals


Dr jeremy pritchard

Brains larger than other animals in relation to body size recent common ancestor.

Log brain weight (g)

  • Brains larger than other animals

Log body weight (g)


Dr jeremy pritchard

Information from the skeleton recent common ancestor.

  • sex

  • age

  • stature

  • race/species

  • pathological conditions

  • skeletal trauma


Trauma
Trauma recent common ancestor.


Trauma1
Trauma recent common ancestor.


Trauma2
Trauma recent common ancestor.


Trauma3
Trauma recent common ancestor.


Dr jeremy pritchard

Proconsul recent common ancestor.


Dr jeremy pritchard


Australopithecus afarensis
Australopithecus afarensis recent common ancestor.

Lucy, discovered in Ethiopia in 1974.


Australopithecus africanus
Australopithecus africanus recent common ancestor.

Southern Ape of Africa


Don t run before you can walk
Don recent common ancestor.’t run before you can walk


Dr jeremy pritchard

Homo habilis recent common ancestor. (ca. 2.5-1.6 mya)


Dr jeremy pritchard

Homo erectus recent common ancestor. (1.6 mya-300 kya)


Dr jeremy pritchard

Homo neanderthal recent common ancestor.

Homo sapiens

Homo erectus

Homo habilis

Australopithicus africanus

ramapithicus


Neanderthals ca 100 32 kya
Neanderthals (ca. 100-32 kya) recent common ancestor.


Neanderthals ca 100 32 kya1
Neanderthals (ca. 100-32 kya) recent common ancestor.

  • Restricted to Europe, eastern Middle East during Ice Age

  • Evolved to be cold-adapted:

    • Short and stocky

    • Large nose (for warming air)

    • Barrel chest (for warming air)

    • Long, low, thick skull but with large Brain


Neanderthals are not our ancestors
Neanderthals are not our ancestors recent common ancestor.


Dr jeremy pritchard

NOT our ancestors…. recent common ancestor.

Krings et al 1997 Neandertal DNA Sequences and the Origin of Modern Humans


Are we still evolving
Are we still evolving? recent common ancestor.

Microevolution: change in gene frequency - YES

Macro evolution : formation of species - NO


Are we still evolving1
Are we still evolving? recent common ancestor.

  • Some parts of Africa have seen an increase in the frequency of a gene called CCR5-32

  • Protects against infection with HIV-1.

  • May have been selected for during bubonic plague


Dr jeremy pritchard

Human Evolution - Chimps are our closest relative recent common ancestor.

25,000 genes 25, 000 genes