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RESPIRATION. Energy in food. Carbohydrates (17 kJ g -1 ) Proteins (17 kJ g -1 ) Lipids (34 kJ g -1 ) These are sources of reduced carbon This can supply hydrogen atoms  protons (H + ) + electrons (e - ). © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWS. Energy transformations.

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energy in food
Energy in food
  • Carbohydrates (17 kJ g-1)Proteins (17 kJ g-1)Lipids (34 kJ g-1)
  • These are sources of reduced carbon
  • This can supply hydrogen atoms  protons (H+) + electrons (e-)

© 2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

energy transformations
Energy transformations

Light  Chemical (mostly in chemical bonds)

Chemical  Heat

Chemical  Kinetic (movement)

Chemical  Chemical COUPLED REACTIONSe.g. Food  ATP

© 2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

the energy in adenosine triphosphate atp

Inorganic phosphate

High energy bond

The energy in Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

ADP + Pi  ATP + H2O E = + 30.5 kJ mol-1

ADENOSINE  P  P  P

© 2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

a stepwise energy release is needed
A stepwise energy release is needed

Complete oxidation of glucose

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O E = 2880 kJ mol-1

Complete oxidation of a fat (lipid)

C18H34O2 + 25.5O2 18CO2 + 17H2O E = 9800 kJ mol-1

© 2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

respiration is efficient
Respiration is efficient
  • This is too much to handle all at once
  • Energy is released step by step
  • Coupled to ATP synthesis
  • The energy in 1 molecule of glucose is used to synthesise 36 molecules of ATP
  • 37.5 % efficient
  • This is a very efficient energy conversion
  • Because the release of the energy from the food molecules is done stepwise

© 2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

coupling the energy released from glucose to atp
Coupling the energy released from glucose to ATP

Two reaction pathways

  • GLYCOLYSISin the cytoplasm
  • KREB'S CYCLEin mitochondria of eukaryotes (in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes)

© 2010 Paul Billiet ODWS