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Chapter 2: Signal Detection and Absolute Judgement. Slide Template. SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY. The Signal Detection Paradigm . Hit , misses, false alarms and correct rejections. . The Signal Detection Paradigm . Change in the evidence variable caused by a weak and strong signal. .

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Chapter 2: Signal Detection and Absolute Judgement


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    1. Chapter 2: Signal Detection and Absolute Judgement Slide Template

    2. SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY

    3. The Signal Detection Paradigm • Hit, misses, false alarms and correct rejections.

    4. The Signal Detection Paradigm • Change in the evidence variable caused by a weak and strong signal.

    5. The Signal Detection Paradigm • Hypothetical distribution underlying signal detection theory and sensitivity

    6. Setting the Response Criterion: Optimally in SDT • Signal probability. Optimal beta. • Payoffs. Expected value.

    7. Setting the Response Criterion: Optimally in SDT • Human Performance in Setting Beta. • Sluggish beta. • Relationship between obtained and optimal decision criteria.

    8. Sensitivity • Misses result because of high beta or low sensitivity

    9. The roc curve

    10. Theoretical Representation • Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve

    11. Theoretical Representation • Analysis of confidence ratings in signal detection tasks.

    12. Theoretical Representation • Z-scores.

    13. Empirical Data • Distinction between theoretical data and actual empirical data collected in an experiment

    14. FUZZY SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY

    15. Fuzzy SDT • Combining SDT and fuzzy logic. • Mapping function.

    16. Applications of sdt

    17. Medical Diagnosis • Disease prevalence.

    18. Recognition Memory and Eyewitness Testimony • Relative judgment

    19. Alarm and Alert Systems • SDT and warning signals

    20. Alarm and Alert Systems • Alarm false alarms • Minimum safe altitude warning • Solutions: • Use multiple alarm levels • Raise automated beta slightly • Keep the human in the loop • Improve operator understanding of alarm false alarms.

    21. vigilance

    22. Target versus non-target events • Vigilance level and vigilance decrement

    23. Measuring Vigilance Performance • Influences on sensitivity • Changes in bias

    24. Theories of Vigilance • Arousal theory

    25. Theories of Vigilance • Sustained demand theory. • Expectancy theory.

    26. Techniques to Combat the Loss of Vigilance • Increasing sensitivity: • show target examples • increase target salience • reduce the event rate • train observers • Shift in Response Criterion. • Instructions, knowledge of results, false signals, confidence levels • Other techniques • Arousal and fatigue

    27. Application • Inside and outside the Laboratory • Examples • Situation Awareness

    28. Absolute JUDGMENT

    29. Quantifying Information • Bits

    30. Single Dimensions • Experimental Results • Channel capacity • Bow Effect • Applictions

    31. Multi-dimensional Judgment • Orthogonal Dimensions

    32. Multi-dimensional Judgment • Correlated Dimensions

    33. Multi-dimensional Judgment • Dimensional Relations: • Integral and Separable. • Garner Sort task.

    34. Multi-dimensional Judgment • Configural Dimensions • Emergent features. • Summary

    35. Multi-dimensional Judgment • Implications of Multi-Dimensional Absolute Judgment • Example of configural dimensions for the heights and widths of rectangles