Chapter 2: Signal Detection and Absolute Judgement. Slide Template. SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY. The Signal Detection Paradigm . Hit , misses, false alarms and correct rejections. . The Signal Detection Paradigm . Change in the evidence variable caused by a weak and strong signal. .
Chapter 2: Signal Detection and Absolute Judgement Slide Template
The Signal Detection Paradigm • Hit, misses, false alarms and correct rejections.
The Signal Detection Paradigm • Change in the evidence variable caused by a weak and strong signal.
The Signal Detection Paradigm • Hypothetical distribution underlying signal detection theory and sensitivity
Setting the Response Criterion: Optimally in SDT • Signal probability. Optimal beta. • Payoffs. Expected value.
Setting the Response Criterion: Optimally in SDT • Human Performance in Setting Beta. • Sluggish beta. • Relationship between obtained and optimal decision criteria.
Sensitivity • Misses result because of high beta or low sensitivity
Theoretical Representation • Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve
Theoretical Representation • Analysis of confidence ratings in signal detection tasks.
Theoretical Representation • Z-scores.
Empirical Data • Distinction between theoretical data and actual empirical data collected in an experiment
Fuzzy SDT • Combining SDT and fuzzy logic. • Mapping function.
Medical Diagnosis • Disease prevalence.
Recognition Memory and Eyewitness Testimony • Relative judgment
Alarm and Alert Systems • SDT and warning signals
Alarm and Alert Systems • Alarm false alarms • Minimum safe altitude warning • Solutions: • Use multiple alarm levels • Raise automated beta slightly • Keep the human in the loop • Improve operator understanding of alarm false alarms.
Target versus non-target events • Vigilance level and vigilance decrement
Measuring Vigilance Performance • Influences on sensitivity • Changes in bias
Theories of Vigilance • Arousal theory
Theories of Vigilance • Sustained demand theory. • Expectancy theory.
Techniques to Combat the Loss of Vigilance • Increasing sensitivity: • show target examples • increase target salience • reduce the event rate • train observers • Shift in Response Criterion. • Instructions, knowledge of results, false signals, confidence levels • Other techniques • Arousal and fatigue
Application • Inside and outside the Laboratory • Examples • Situation Awareness
Quantifying Information • Bits
Single Dimensions • Experimental Results • Channel capacity • Bow Effect • Applictions
Multi-dimensional Judgment • Orthogonal Dimensions
Multi-dimensional Judgment • Correlated Dimensions
Multi-dimensional Judgment • Dimensional Relations: • Integral and Separable. • Garner Sort task.
Multi-dimensional Judgment • Configural Dimensions • Emergent features. • Summary
Multi-dimensional Judgment • Implications of Multi-Dimensional Absolute Judgment • Example of configural dimensions for the heights and widths of rectangles