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THE MEANING OF INTEGRATION. ICAM definition. ICAM is continuous, proactive and adaptive process of resource management for environmentally sustainable development of coastal areas

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The meaning of integration

ICAM definition

  • ICAM is continuous, proactive and adaptive process of resource management for environmentally sustainable development of coastal areas

  • ICAM requires multidisciplinary approach, problem solving instead of problem transfer, stakeholder participation, as well as integration among sectors, institutions and administrative levels

  • ICAM requires full understanding of interactions among coastal resources, their use, and impacts of the development on economy and the environment

The meaning of integration

Unsustainable and sustainable approaches to coastal resource use

Recognise Need for Sustainable Management

Evaluate Resources/Uses


Death of System

Monitor and Review

Develop/Refine Management System



Implement System

Over harvest

Sustainable Development Pattern

Unsustainable Development Pattern

The meaning of integration

Sector useal issues

ICAM is not a substitute for existing sectoral planning - it proposes linkages to achieve more comprehensive goals

Most important sectors in coastal areas:

  • tourism

  • water resources

  • soil and agriculture

  • aquaculture

  • built heritage and urbanisation

  • renewable sources of energy

  • industry, etc.

The meaning of integration

ICAM Stages use


  • Planning:

    • preparatory phase

    • analysis and forecasting

    • formulation of goals and strategies

    • integration of plans and management policies

  • Implementation:

    • implementation of plans and policies

    • monitoring and evaluation

What is integration
What is integration? use

  • The process of bringing together separate components as a functional whole that involves coordination of interventions

Types of integration 1
Types use of integration (1)

  • integration of land-sea interface

  • systemic: the need to ensure that all important interactions and issues are taken into consideration

  • functional: interventions by management bodies must be harmonised with the coastal area management objectives and strategies

  • policy: coastal area management policies, strategies and plans have to be incorporated in the development policies, strategies and plans

  • interdisciplinary integration

  • integration of economic considerations

Types of integration 2
Types use of integration (2)

  • “vertical”: integration among institutions and administrative levels within the same sector

  • “horizontal”: integration among various sectors at the same administrative level

  • planning: among plans at various spatial levels, plans must not have conflicting objectives, strategies or planning proposals

  • temporal: co-ordination among short-, medium- and long-term plans and programmes

The meaning of integration

Integration of land-sea interface use

  • area of intense activity

  • area of interchange within and between physical, biological, social, cultural, economic etc. processes

  • area composed of multiple and interacting systems (marine, terrestrial, riverine)

  • ecologically sensitive area where changes on the coast generate chain reactions inland, and vice versa

  • area which attracts population from inland areas

The meaning of integration

Coastal environment use

Coastal system

Information needs

Policy integration (1)

  • Natural and cultural heritage

    • loss or decline of habitat

    • disturbance of coastal ecosystems

    • decline in fish/shellfish resources

    • loss of treasured landscapes

  • Physical character of the coastal area

    • loss or decline of landscape value

    • disruption of sediment transport

    • decline in amenity resources (beaches, dunes, etc.)

    • impacts on character of coastal towns

  • Coastal area uses

    • conflicts with rights of sea users

    • incompatible uses need other locations

    • pressure for services and facilities (e.g. car parks, moorings etc.)

    • impacts on existing businesses and employment

The meaning of integration

Environment use

Information needs

  • Planning issues

  • land use

  • transport

  • protection

  • tourism

  • Coastal management issues

  • pollution

  • resource depletion

  • hazards

  • conflicts

  • Identification of

  • constraints

  • resources

  • opportunities


National, regional and local development plans and policies

National and regional spatial planning strategy

Coastal management plans

Decision making

Environmental assessment

Development control

Coastal management

Policy integration (2)

Integration of economic consideratiuons the value of coastal areas
Integration of economic consideratiuons: The value of coastal areas

  • value of coastal (marine and land) resources is based on “products” and “services” created and rendered

  • “products”: oil, gas, tourism, marine trade, shipping, shipbuilding, fisheries, minerals, submarine communications, etc.

  • ecological “services”: gas control (balance between carbon dioxide and oxygen, as well as ozone), disturbance control (storm protection, flood control), waste treatment (liquid waste), nutrient circulation (wetlands and marine ecosystems)


bil US$ coastal areas













Coastal area



The meaning of integration

Nacionalna Ciljevi, Smjernice, coastal areas Institucionalni i zakonodavni okvir

Regionalna 1:100,000

Sub- 1:25,000 Regionalna

Sektorski Planovi

Nacionalni proces planiranja obale

Sektorske vlasti



Lokalna 1:5,000

Lokacija 1:1,000

Planning integration

Razina Planerska Plansko Geografski obuhvatvlasti razina mjerilo

The meaning of integration

Planning integration: The case of aquaculture coastal areas

National Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable Developmentrequires aquaculture to be managed within an ecologically sustainable framework

Regional Planrecognizes the aquaculture potential and recommends aquaculture development in the certain area’s management objectives

Integrated Initiatives

Environmental Impact Assessment




Aquaculture Licence

Local Aquaculture Development Planaims to identify and develop areas for the ecological sustainability of a commercially viable aquaculture industry

National Aquaculture Strategygoals include developing an ecologically sustainable industry

Aquaculture Specific Initiatives

Geographic Scales

The meaning of integration

Vertical integration coastal areas

Why are we linking coastal areas and river basins
Why are we linking coastal areas and river basins? coastal areas

  • Coasts and river basins contain important natural environments that are used intensively by population

  • Modification of river drainage basins by human activity has led to dramatic changes in the flow of water and nutrients they bring to the sea

  • Pollution from land based activities affects the people living in fresh water basins even more dramatically than it does to the people living in coastal areas

  • Marine eco-systems are harmed by careless land practices hundreds or even thousands of kilometres upstream

Evolution of river basin and coastal management approaches

marine coastal areas




Evolution of river basin and coastal management approaches

  • When management is sectoral

River basin management - Focus on water supply but other functions must be recognised, including tourism, nature conservation and cultural values. Primarily resource oriented, eventually rural land use regulation.

Coastal zone management - combines marine resource management and land-use planning. Physical planning and resource management with a strong emphasis on land-use regulation and physical interventions (project planning)

The meaning of integration

river coastal areas




coastal zone

  • When management is a multi-sectoral activity

Based on a growing awareness of an intimate connection between the river and its catchment area. Integrated River Basin Management.

Multiple interests recognised in coastal areas. Conflict resolution. Conservation and protection of the coast. Integrated Coastal Area Management.

The meaning of integration

marine coastal areas




  • Integrated Coastal Area and River Basin Management (ICARM)

Cca as part of the icam process

Initiation coastal areas



CCA as part of the ICAM process

Integrated Coastal Area Management