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Cell Membrane - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Cell Membrane. Every cell is surrounded by a protective membrane called a cell membrane . This membrane is flexible & protects the inside of the cell from the environment outside of the cell.

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cell membrane
Cell Membrane
  • Every cell is surrounded by a protective membrane called a cell membrane.
  • This membrane is flexible & protects the inside of the cell from the environment outside of the cell.
  • Mostly made up of two different types of macromolecules- proteins and a type of lipid called phospholipids.
cell wall
Cell Wall
  • Plant cells, fungal cells, bacteria and some types of protists have cell walls.
  • Cell wall is a stiff structure outside the cell membrane & protects a cell from attack by viruses and other harmful organisms.
  • In plant & fungal cells, a cell wall helps to provide structural support in order to maintain the cell’s shape.
cell appendages
Cell Appendages
  • Cell appendages are used for movement
  • Flagella are long, tail-like appendages that whip back & forth and move a cell
  • Cells can also have cilia which are short hair like structures. Cilia can move a cell or move molecules away from a cell.
cytoplasm cytoskeleton
Cytoplasm & Cytoskeleton
  • Most of the water in cells is in the cytoplasm.
  • Cytoplasm is the fluid inside a cell that contains salts & other molecules.
  • The cytoplasm also contains the cell’s cytoskeleton which is a network of threadlike proteins that are joined together.
  • The cytoskeleton is made up of proteins. The cytoskeleton helps give the cell its shape & helps it move.
prokaryotic cells
Prokaryotic Cells
  • Is one of the two types of cells
  • The genetic material in a prokaryotic cell is not surrounded by a membrane (this is most important feature in prokaryotic cells)
  • Missing many other cell parts
  • Most prokaryotic cells are unicellular organisms
eukaryotic cells
Eukaryotic Cells
  • Plant, animal, fungi and protists are made of eukaryotic cells.
  • Most eukaryotic cells have genetic material that is surrounded by a membrane.
  • Eukaryotic cells have cell structures called organelles, which have special jobs.
  • Eukaryotic cells are usually larger than prokaryotic cells.
the nucleus
The Nucleus
  • The largest organelle inside most eukaryotic cells
  • The nucleus directs cell activities & contains genetic information stored in DNA.
  • Chromosomes is where the DNA is stored inside the nucleus
  • Also the nucleus contains the nucleolus which looks like a dark spot in a cell. The nucleolus makes ribosomes, which make proteins.
  • The nucleus is surrounded by two membranes that forms structure called the nuclear envelope. Nuclear envelope has many pores. Certain molecules move in & out of the nucleus through these pores.
manufacturing molecules
Manufacturing Molecules
  • Proteins are important molecules in cells.
  • Proteins are made on small structures called ribosomes.
  • Ribosomes do not have cell membranes & are in the cell’s cytoplasm. They also attach to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
  • Rough ER is where protein is made.
  • Smooth ER has no ribosomes and is where lipids like cholesterol is made. Smooth ER is important because it helps remove harmful substances from a cell.
processing energy
Processing Energy
  • All living things require energy to in order to survive. Cells process some energy in special organelles.
  • Two organelles that process energy through chemical reactions are: mitochondria and chloroplasts(in plant cells only).
  • In mitochondria the energy made is stored in molecules called ATP. ATP is the fuel for cell jobs such as: growth, cell division & material transport.
  • Plant cells & some protists like algae contain organelles called chloroplasts. Chloroplasts use light energy & make food (sugar called glucose) through a process called photosynthesis. The sugar contains stored chemical energy & releases it when the cell needs it.
processing transporting storing molecules
Processing, Transporting & Storing Molecules
  • The golgi apparatus (looks like a stack of pancakes) is near the ER in a cell. It prepares proteins to do their jobs in the cell and then puts the proteins in little packages called vesicles.
  • The vesicles then transport substances from one area in the cell to other areas. In animal cells these vesicles are called lysosomes.
  • Some cells haves have saclike structures called vacuoles. Vacuoles store food, water & waste material. A typical plant cell usually has one large vacuole (central vacuole). Some animal cells have many small vacuoles.