Cell Membrane. Every cell is surrounded by a protective membrane called a cell membrane . This membrane is flexible & protects the inside of the cell from the environment outside of the cell.
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All living things require energy to in order to survive. Cells process some energy in special organelles.
Two organelles that process energy through chemical reactions are: mitochondria and chloroplasts(in plant cells only).
In mitochondria the energy made is stored in molecules called ATP. ATP is the fuel for cell jobs such as: growth, cell division & material transport.
Plant cells & some protists like algae contain organelles called chloroplasts. Chloroplasts use light energy & make food (sugar called glucose) through a process called photosynthesis. The sugar contains stored chemical energy & releases it when the cell needs it.
The golgi apparatus (looks like a stack of pancakes) is near the ER in a cell. It prepares proteins to do their jobs in the cell and then puts the proteins in little packages called vesicles.
The vesicles then transport substances from one area in the cell to other areas. In animal cells these vesicles are called lysosomes.
Some cells haves have saclike structures called vacuoles. Vacuoles store food, water & waste material. A typical plant cell usually has one large vacuole (central vacuole). Some animal cells have many small vacuoles.