Equilibrium. Chemical Equilibrium. Equilibrium occurs when opposing reactions are proceeding at equal rates Equilibrium can be reached from either direction Ratio of concentrations will become constant. Equilibrium Constant. Haber Process N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) ↔ 2NH 3 (g) aA + bB ↔ cC + dD
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N2(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2NO(g)
The value for the equilibrium constant for this reaction at 25°C is Ke q = 1x10- 3 0. Describe the feasibility of the reaction for nitrogen fixation.
N2O4(g) ↔ 2NO2(g)
Keq = (PN O2)2 = 6.46 (@ 100°C)
PN 2 O 4
Keq = PN 2 O 4 = 0.155 (@ 100°C)
PN 2 O 4
(PN 2 O 4)2
2NOBr(g) + Cl2(g) ↔ 2NO(g) + 2BrCl(g) Ke q= 3.0
HF(aq) ↔ H+(aq) + F-(aq) Ke q= 6.8x10- 4
H2C2O4(aq) ↔ 2H+(aq) + C2O42 -(aq) Ke q= 3.8x10- 6
determine the value of the rate constant for the following reaction:
2HF(aq) + C2O42 -(aq) ↔ 2F-(aq) + H2C2O4(aq)
(PN 2 O 4/Pr e f)
PbCl2(s) ↔ Pb+ 2(aq) + 2Cl-(aq)
Keq = [Pb2 +][Cl-]2
CO2(g) + H2(g) ↔ CO(g) + H2O(l)
SnO2(s) + 2CO(g) ↔ Sn(s) + 2CO2(g)
Sn(s) + 2H+(aq) ↔ Sn2 +(aq) + H2(g)
a) pure CaCO3
b) CaO and a pressure of CO2 greater than the value of Ke q
c) some CaCO3 and a pressure of CO2 greater than the value of Ke q
d) CaCO3 and CaO
NH3(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)
Answer: 1.81x10- 5
Answer: The reaction will generate more products.
Answer: Q = 16, the reaction will proceed from right to left
Answer: 1.45x10- 5
At temperatures near 800°C, steam passed over hot coke (a form of carbon obtained from coal) reacts to form CO and H2:
C(s) + H2O(g) ↔ CO(g) + H2(g)
The mixture of gases that results is an important industrial fuel called water gas.