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Dynamic Patterns of the Space Economy. agriculture boserup thesis collective farm commercial economy economic geography extensive commercial agriculture extensive subsistence agriculture extractive industry gathering industries Green Revolution intensive commercial agriculture.

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key words

boserup thesis

collective farm

commercial economy

economic geography

extensive commercial agriculture

extensive subsistence agriculture

extractive industry

gathering industries

Green Revolution

intensive commercial agriculture

intensive subsistence agriculture

maximum sustainable yield

natural resource

nomadic herding

nonrenewable resource

planned economy


primary activity

quaternary activity

quinary activity

renewable resource

Key Words
  • secondary activity
  • shifting cultivation
  • State farm
  • subsistence economy
  • technology
  • tertiary activity
  • tragedy of the commons
  • truck farm
  • usable reserves
  • von Thunen rings
economic geography
Economic Geography

The branch of systematic geography concerned with how people support themselves, with the spatial patterns of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, and with the areal variation of economic activities over the surface of the earth.

economic geography4
Economic Geography

A study of:

  • How people earn their living,
  • How livelihood systems vary by area, and
  • How economic activities are spatially interrelated and linked.
  • It applies geography’s general concern with the study of spatial variation to the special circumstances of the production, exchange, and consumption of goods and services.
classification of economic activity and economies
Classification of Economic activity and economies
  • The complex environmental and cultural realities controlling the economic activities of humans.
  • Many production patterns are rooted in the spatially variable circumstances of the physical environment.
  • Unequal distribution of useful mineral deposits gives some regions and countries economic prospects and employment opportunities.
classification of economic activity and economies cont
Classification of Economic activity and economies (cont.)
  • Technological development will affect its recognition of resources or ability to exploit them.
  • Political decisions may encourage or discourage economic activity– through subsidies, protective tariffs, or production restrictions.
  • Production is controlled by economic factors of demand, whether that demand is expressed through a free market mechanism, government instruction, or the consumption requirements.

The integrated system of knowledge, skills, tools, and methods developed within or used by a culture to successfully carry out purposeful and productive tasks.


The main sectors of the economy do not stand alone. They are connected and intergrated by transportation and communication services and facilities not assigned to any single sector but not common to all

primary activity
Those parts of the economy involved in making natural resources available for use or further processing.

They are mining, agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and grazing…

Primary Activity
secondary activity
Economy involved in the processing of raw materials and altering or combining materials to enhance utilities and value.

They are:

handicraft production,


Copper smelting…

Textile and chemical industries,

Manufacturing and processing industries

Construction industry, and

power production…

Secondary Activity
tertiary activity
This part fulfill the exchange function, provide market availability of commodities, and bring together consumers and providers of services.

It includes wholesale, and retail trade, associated transportation and governmental services, and personal and professional services of all kinds.

Tertiary Activity
quaternary activity
The part of the economy concerned with research, with the gathering and dissemination of information, and with administration.

It includes administration of the other economic activity levels, often considered only as a specialized subdivision of tertiary activities.

They are ‘white collar’ professionals working in education, government, management, information processing, and research.

Quaternary Activity
quinary activity
A sometimes separately recognized subsection of tertiary activity management functions involving highest-level decision making in all types of large organization.

Also the most advanced form of the quaternary sub-sector.

Quinary Activity
types of economic systems
Types of Economic Systems
  • Subsistence economy
  • Commercial economy
  • Planned economy

Figure 8.4: Patterns of access and isolation.

Accessibility is a key measure of economic development and of the degree to which a world region can participate in interconnected market activities. Isolated areas of countries with advanced economies suffer a price disadvantage because of high transportation costs. Lack of accessibility in subsistence economic areas shows their mordernization and hinders their participation in the world market.

subsistence economy
An economic system of relatively simple technology in which people produce most or all of the goods to satisfy their own and their family’s needs;

Little or no exchange occurs outside of the immediate or extended family.

Subsistence Economy
commercial economy
A system of production of goods and services for exchange in comparative markets where price and availability are determined by supply and demand forces

In which, supply and demand determine price and quantity, and market competition is the primary force shaping production decisions and distributions.

Commercial Economy
planned economy
A system of production of goods and services usually consumed or distributed by a governmental agency, in quantities, at prices, and in locations determined by a governmental program.

Were rigidly programmed by central planning department without benefit of the cost or demand information a free market economy regularly supplies.

Planned Economy
the significance of the tnc
The significance of the TNC
  • That is seen to pose the major threat to the autonomy of nation – state
  • There has not only been a massive growth of foreign direct investment (FDI), but also the sources and destinations of that investment have become increasingly diverse
A transnational corporation is a firm that has the power to coordinate and control operations in more than one country, even if it does not own them.
Its ability to coordinate and control various processes and transactions within production networks, both within and between different countries
  • Its is potential ability to take advantage of geographical differences in the distribution of factors of production
  • Its is potential geographical flexibility – an ability to switch and to re-switch its resources and operations between locations on an international, or even a global, scale.
the chapter is organized into three parts
The chapter is organized into three parts:
  • We outline some of the broad theoretical explanations of why firms should attempt to transnationalize their activities beyond exporting their products foreign market.
  • We addressthe question of how firms transnationalize their activities in an organizational sense
  • We confront the commonly held view that TNCs are becoming “placeless”
why not transnationalize some general explanations
Why (not) transnationalize? Some general explanations
  • Expressed in the simplest terms, profit (P) is the difference between the revenue (R) which s firm receives from selling its products and the cost (C) of producing and distributing the firm’s goods and services: P = R - C.
a macro level approach internationalization of the circuits of capital
A macro-level approach: internationalization of the circuits of capital
  • “the money at the end of the process is greater than that at the beginning and the value of the commodity produced if greater than the value of the commodities used as inputs”.
a macro level approach internationalization of the circuits of capital28
A macro-level approach: internationalization of the circuits of capital

Three circuits of the capital has become progressively internationalized:

  • The circuit of commodity capital was the first of the three circuits to become internationalized, in the form of world trade.
  • The circuit of money capital was the second to become internationalized, in the form of the flow of portfolio investment capital into overseas ventures.
  • The circuit of productive capital was the most recent to become internationalized, in the form of the massive growth of transnational corporations and of international production.
micro level approach the search for an integrative framework
Micro-level approach: the search for an integrative framework
  • Stephen Hymer: the undisputed pioneer
  • Give such domestic-firm advantage, a foreign firm-specific asset that would offset the advantage held by domestic firms.
  • Such assets are primarily those of firm size and economies of scale, market power and marketing skills, technological expertise, or access to cheaper sources of finance. On these bases, then, a foreign firm would be able to out-compete domestic firms in their own home territory.
micro level approach the search for an integrative framework31
Micro-level approach: the search for an integrative framework
  • Raymond Vernon and the product life cycle
  • The high average-income level and high labor costs tended to encourage the development of new products that catered to high-income consumers and were labor-saving (both consumer and producer goods).
  • US firms would eventually set up production facilities in the overseas market either because they saw an opportunity to reduce production and distribution costs or because of a threat to their market position.
  • Even within strongly innovative TNCs, the initial source of the innovation and of its production may be from any point in the firm’s global network.
micro level approach the search for an integrative framework32
Micro-level approach: the search for an integrative framework
  • John Dunning’s “eclectic paradigm
  • A firm must possess certain ownership-specific advantages not possessed by completing firms of other nationalities.
  • Such advantages must be most suitably exploited by the firm itself rather than by selling or leasing them to other firms. In other words, the firm will internalize the use of its ownership-specific advantage.
  • There must be location-specific factors that make it more profitable for the firm to exploit its assets in foreign, rather than in domestic, locations.
john dunning s eclectic paradigm
John Dunning’s “eclectic paradigm
  • Ownership-specific advantage are assets internal to a firm
  • relate to size and market power.
  • A better credit
  • Technology
  • Markets are imperfect:
  • Vertical integration.
  • To ensure a satisfactory return on such investment, and to protect against predators, firms have a strong incentive to retain the technology for use within their own organizational boundaries. Rather than sell or lease the technology to another firm abroad the firm sets up its own production facilities and exploits its technological advantage directly.
john dunning s eclectic paradigm34
John Dunning’s “eclectic paradigm
  • Location – specific factors
  • Markets
  • Resources
  • Production cost
  • Political condition (including degrees of political risk)
  • Cultural/ linguistic affinities
tnc development as a sequential process

Serve domestic market only

Export to overseas

market(s) through

independent channels

License foreign

manufacturer to produce

for overseas market(s)

Establish sale outlet

in overseas market(s)

a) By acquiring local firm b) by setting up new facility

Establish production facility overseas

a) By acquiring local firm b) by setting up new facility

TNC development as a sequential process

Figure. A sequential model of TNC development

types of transnational production
Types of transnational production
  • Market-oriented production
  • The largest geographical markets in terms of incomes, although not in terms of population, are obviously the US and Western Europe. Such variations in per capita GNP provide a crude indication of how the level of demand will vary from place across the world.
  • In the economist’s terminology, different products have different income elasticities of demand. We would expect populations in countries with low income levels to spend a larger proportion of their income on primary products (basic necessities) and, conversely, countries with high income levels to spend a higher proportion of their income on ‘higher-order’ manufactured good and services.
types of transnational production37
Types of transnational production
  • Asset-oriented production
  • Firms in the natural resource industries must, of necessity, locate at the sources of supply.
  • The relative importance of the various production factors tends to vary according to the stage in the product’s life cycle and, especially, with the maturity of the technology.
  • Geographical variations in labor knowledge and skill.
  • Geographical variations in wage costs.
  • Labor is strongly place-bound, although the strength of the tie varies a great deal between different types of labor. On average, male workers are more mobile professional white-collar workers are more mobile than blue-collar workers.
a diversity of organizational architectures how transnational operations are coordinated
A diversity of organizational architectures: how transnational operations are coordinated
  • Coping with complexity: a diversity of organizational structures
  • Headquarter – subsidiary relationships
  • Strategic tensions: global integration – local responsiveness
the myth of the placeless tnc
The myth of the “placeless” TNC
  • Before national identity, before local affiliation… before any of this comes the commitment to a single, unified mission … Country of origin does not matter. Location of headquarters does not matter. The products for which you are responsible and the company you serve become denationalized.
  • “placeless” and “boundary-less”
In which nation or nations is the bulk of the corporation’s assets and people located?
  • By whom are the local subsidiaries owned and controlled, and in which nation is the parent company owned and controlled?
  • What is the nationality of the senior positions at the parent company, and what is the nationality of the most important decision – markers at the subsidiaries in host nations?
What is the legal nationality of the parent company?
  • To whom would the group as a whole turn for diplomatic protection and political support in case of need?
  • Which is the nation where the tax authorities can, if they choose to do so, tax the group on its worldwide earnings rather than merely its local earnings?
The geographical embeddedness of transnational corporations
  • A comparison between US, German and Japanese companies
  • East Asian business organizations
    • The Japanese keiretsu
    • A comparison of Korean and Taiwanese business groups
    • The Overseas Chinese family business network
  • Continuity and change?
the overseas chinese family business network
The Overseas Chinese family business network
  • Control of the firm must be retained in the long-term interest of family prosperity.
  • Family assets must be protected by hedging of risks.
  • Key decision-making should be confined to an inner circle.
  • Dependence on outsiders (‘non-belongers’) for key resources must be limited.
  • Inter-firm transactions should be based on “networks of interpersonal obligation. Personalizing trust-bonds substitutes for a system of legal contracts so normal in Western contexts”.