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Chapter 14 Carbohydrates. 14.5 Disaccharides . Important Disaccharides. A disaccharide consists of two monosaccharides. Monosaccharides Disaccharide glucose + glucose maltose + H 2 O glucose + galactose lactose + H 2 O glucose + fructose sucrose + H 2 O .

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chapter 14 carbohydrates
Chapter 14 Carbohydrates

14.5

Disaccharides

important disaccharides
Important Disaccharides

A disaccharide consists of two monosaccharides.

Monosaccharides Disaccharide

glucose + glucose maltose + H2O

glucose + galactose lactose + H2O

glucose + fructose sucrose + H2O

maltose
Maltose

Maltose is

  • a disaccharide also known as malt sugar.
  • composed of two D-glucose molecules.
  • obtained from the hydrolysis of starch.
  • linked by an -1,4-glycosidic bond formed from the

 −OH on C1 of the first glucose and −OH on C4 of the

second glucose.

  • used in cereals, candies, and brewing.
  • found in both the - and β - forms.
lactose
Lactose

Lactose

  • is a disaccharide of β-D-galactose and α- orβ-D-glucose.
  • contains a β -1,4-glycosidic bond.
  • is found in milk and milk products.

α-form

α-form

sucrose
Sucrose

Sucrose or table sugar

  • is obtained from sugar cane and sugar beets.
  • consists of α-D-glucose and β-D-fructose..
  • has an α,β-1,2-glycosidic bond.

α-D-glucose

β-D-fructose

learning check
Learning Check

Write the structures of the two monosaccharides that

form when sucrose is hydrolyzed.

solution
Solution

Write the structures of the two monosaccharides that

form when sucrose is hydrolyzed.

sweetness of sweeteners
Sweetness of Sweeteners

Sugars and artificial

sweeteners

  • differ in sweetness.
  • are compared to sucrose (table sugar), which is assigned a value of 100.

60 000

learning check10
Learning Check

Identify the monosaccharides in each of the following:

A. lactose

(1) α-D-glucose (2) β-D-fructose (3) β-D-galactose

B. maltose

(1) α-D-glucose (2) β-D-fructose (3) β-D-galactose

C. sucrose

(1) α-D-glucose (2) β-D-fructose (3) β-D-galactose

solution11
Solution

Identify the monosaccharides in each of the following:

A. lactose

(1) α-D-glucose (3) β-D-galactose

B. maltose

(1) α-D-glucose

C. sucrose

(1) α-D-glucose (2) β-D-fructose