7-2: The “Last” West 1865-1900
Learning Objectives • WXT 1.0 Explain how different labor systems developed in North America and the United States, and explain their effects on workers’ lives and U.S. society. • WXT 2.0 Explain how patterns of exchange, markets, and private enterprise have developed, and analyze ways that governments have responded to economic issues. • WXT 3.0 Analyze how technological innovation has affected economic development and society. • POL 3.0 Explain how different beliefs about the federal government’s role in U.S. social and economic life have affected political debates and policies. • NAT 1.0 Explain how ideas about democracy, freedom, and individualism found expression in the development of cultural values, political institutions, and American identity. • MIG 2.0 Analyze causes of internal migration and patterns of settlement in what would become the United States, and explain how migration has affected American life. • GEO 1.0 Explain how geographic and environmental factors shaped the development of various communities, and analyze how competition for and debates over natural resources have affected both interactions among different groups and the development of government policies.
Key Concepts • Technological advances, large-scale production methods, and the opening of new markets encouraged the rise of industrial capitalism in the United States • The migrations that accompanied industrialization transformed both urban and rural areas of the United States and caused dramatic social and cultural change.
Westward Migration • Opportunity in the West • Homestead Act • Incentive to restart life after Civil War • Free public land • New states added
Westward Migration • Building the Transcontinental Railroads • Construction • Irish and Chinese workers • Consequences • Near-extinction of buffalo • Hinders culture of Plains Indians • Migration to the Great Plains • Soldiers • Farmers • Miners • Cattlemen
Westward Migration • Cattle Kingdom • Open-Range Ranching • Cattle replace buffalo population • Day of the Cowboy • Cattle drives to market • Black equality • Barbed Wire
Westward Migration • Farm Problems • High demand during Civil War • High prices • Farmers invested in land and machinery • Over-farming • Prices fell after war • High costs of new technology • Farmers couldn’t pay debts • Farmers begin to organize • National Grange • Farmers’ Alliance • Unifies Southern and Western farmers
Rise of the Populists • Purpose • Unite discontented farmers • Improve economic conditions • Omaha Platform • Move towards silver standard • Increase money supply • Drive up food prices • Enforce the Interstate Commerce Act • Prevent railroads from price-gouging • Lower the tariff • Assess an income tax
Demise of Populism • Election of 1896 • Pro-gold McKinley (R) defeats Bryan (D—favored by populists) • Western and southern interests did not align • Increase in immigration caused high demand for food
Subordination of American Indians • Dispersal of Tribes • Nomadic tribes doomed by extinction of buffalo and disease • Indian Wars • Sand Creek Massacre (1864) • Little Big Horn (1876) • Chief Joseph—“I will fight no more forever” • Wounded Knee Massacre (1890) • Century of Dishonor
Subordination of American Indians • Dawes Severalty Act • Goals • Misguided attempt to reform Indian policy • Tried to assimilate Indians into mainstream America • Tribes no longer legal entities • Dissolved tribal ownership of land • Consequences • Ignored culture • Lost 50% of tribal land