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Political Cartoons

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Political Cartoons

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  1. Political Cartoons by Alleen Pace Nilsen and Don L. F. Nilsen 67

  2. Caricatures • Caricatures are probably the oldest form of pictorial humor, where caricare in Latin means “to overload, or exaggerate.” • The main stylistic devices here are distortion and exaggeration, and the main subject, famous people. 67

  3. The Word “Cartoon” • The term Cartoon originally comes from the Italian word ‘cartone’ and means a strong, heavy paper or pasteboard. It denotes a full-size drawing made on paper as a study for further drawings, such as a painting or tapestry. • Punch applied the term to satirical drawings by publishing some parody drafts for frescoes (also called cartoons) and making the term’s new meaning permanent. 67

  4. A cartoonist’s craft may force them to limit their originality, because they have fewer than 10 seconds to grab the attention of viewers, and, in fact, to tell whole stories. • We will start with two classic cartoons by David Levine for the New York Review of Books. No words are needed, but readers had to have cultural knowledge in order to “Catch on.” 67

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  6. After President Lyndon Johnson had gallbladder surgery he lifted his shirt to show his scar to reporters at a news conference. Levine’s drawing shows that his real scar was in the shape of Vietnam. • President Reagan, who was famous for cutting welfare is compared to Marie Antoinette who after being told that the people had no bread famously said, “Let them eat cake.” 67

  7. Cultural Icons can be either • recognized visual symbols • or familiar words that can be parodied. • Cartoonists first have to help the viewers into the mindset of the original, • Then take them in a new direction. 67

  8. These words have come into English from various cartoons: POW! ZAP! WHAM! ZIP! ZOWIE! Teddy Bear Gerrymander Yellow Journalism McCarthyism (cf.Senator Simple J. Malarkey in the Pogo Comic Strip) 67

  9. Obituary Cartoons • Cartoonists hate doing them, because they have to be respectful, no matter what. • But their audiences love them, because they capture the essence of the person who has died. 67

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  11. For efficiency, cartoonists make use of common visual symbols • Pointing fingers or arrows • The Trojan Horse • Tombstones and the initials R.I.P. • Skulls/The Grim Reaper 67

  12. The three monkeys • The Ghost of Christmas Past • Superman • Railroad tracks not matching up • A 1973 Boston Globe Cartoon by Paul Szep showed Vietnam as a maze. • Reprinted in 1975 with added symbolism. 67

  13. Other Common Symbols include: • Snakes • Wolves • Fantasy characters • Baby buggies (because they hide information) • And new interpretations of familiar sayings about big sticks (which a person should carry as he speaks softly), and where the buck stops. 67

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  16. Variations on the Statue of Liberty show how symbols can change over time while still retaining some of the original meaning. 67

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  18. Statue of Liberty cartoons while making many different political points still rely on images that in most people’s minds are “feminine.” 67

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  20. 1960: Doug MacPherson drew Fidel Castro and Nikita Krushev having a picnic on her head. • 1971: Daniel Aguila drew her with shortened robes under the cutline “Lib and let lib!” • 1980: Doug Marlett showed her sweeping dirt under a rug designed as a flag. 67

  21. 1984: Signe Wilkinson showed her going through a sewing factory shouting “OK, you huddled masses, I know you’re in here!” • 2001: After 9/11, a tear falling from one eye • And two sad eyes reflecting the burning Twin Towers 67

  22. 2003: Expressing womanly impatience as she says “Geez, two years and still no capture of Osame…or Saddam…or Al Qaida…or WMD…or the Taliban, or Justice or…” A side note read “In a city accustomed to the New York Minute.” • 2005: Nick Adams won the 2005 Pulitzer Prize for showing President Bush sitting on top of her crown wearing earphones hooked to a satellite dish, which had replaced the flame in her extended arm. 67

  23. A Recent New Yorker Cover What is the intended meaning of this cartoon? Does it mean different things to different people? Is The New Yorker more conservative or more liberal in its leanings? What about the cartoon? 67

  24. Today’s Cartoons: Where’s the Humor? People are so frustrated with each other that really funny cartoons are hard to find. Today’s cartoons are mostly hostile and accusatory. They illustrate the idea of the MICH theory—Moderate Intergroup Conflict Humor—which says that people have to be a little bothered by something to expend the energy to make a joke. But if people are so bothered that they are really angry, they want to express their hostility in something more powerful than a joke. 67

  25. ToughTalk between Male & Female Candidates Polite sensitivities have been shelved, while bold gender-based power plays have become the norm. Linguist Deborah Tannen relates the change to lines blurring between public and private. Communications Professor Kathleen Jamieson says that tough language frames the attacker as tougher than the person attacked. 67

  26. “Joking” is now coming through sexist insults that are repeated by the late-night comedians. Sarah Palin told Fox News that President Obama did not have the “cojones” to get tough on illegal immigration. In a debate between Nevada Senate candidates, Sharron Angle zinged Harry Reid with “Man up, Harry Reid.” Although Angle’s zinger got the most publicity, the phrase had already been used by Missouri Democrat Robin Carnahan in a Senate debate with Rep. Roy Blount. Delaware Senate candidate Christine O’Donnell told a radio interviewer that her primary opponent should “put his man pants on” 67

  27. Linguist George Lakoff explained that the Republican worldview emphasizes masculinity and strength,while Democrats underscore the more feminine quality of empathy. This is why, “If you’re a woman candidate who’s a conservative, then you have to say you’re more masculine than the other guy.” However, there’s a double standard in this bold, new talk because it doesn’t go over well for a man to tell a female candidate to be more ladylike. Colorado Republican Senate candidate Ken Buck faced repercussions when he said that unlike his primary opponent Jane Norton, “I do not wear high heels.” In California, Governor candidate Jerry Brown apologized to Republican Meg Whitman after an aide was recorded calling her a whore. 67

  28. The Pulitzer Prize in Editorial Cartoons Here are some political cartoons selected from various winners of the Pulitzer Prize in Political Cartooning. Note that the cartoon selected was not necessarily the one which won the Pulitzer Prize. 67

  29. Nick anderson 2005 Pulitzer Prizehttps://www.bing.com/images/search?q=nick+anderson+cartoonist&qpvt=nick+anderson+cartoonist&qpvt=nick+anderson+cartoonist&qpvt=nick+anderson+cartoonist&FORM=IGRE 67

  30. Tony Auth 1976 Pulitzer Prizehttp://www.gocomics.com/tonyauth 67

  31. Clay Bennett 2002 Pulitzer Prizehttp://www.claybennett.com/pages2/latest_39.html 67

  32. Steve Benson 1993 Pulitzer Prizehttps://www.bing.com/images/search?q=steve+benson+cartoons&qpvt=steve+benson+cartoons&qpvt=steve+benson+cartoons&qpvt=steve+benson+cartoons&FORM=IGRE 67

  33. Herbert Block 1979 Pulitzer Prizehttp://herblockexhibitions.org/ 67

  34. Jim Borgman 1991 Pulitzer Prizehttp://zitscomics.com/ 67

  35. Berkeley Breathed 1987 Pulitzer Prizehttp://www.berkeleybreathed.com/ 67

  36. Stephen Breen 1998 & 2009 Pulitzer Prizehttps://www.bing.com/images/search?q=stephen+breen+cartoons&qpvt=stephen+breen+cartoons&qpvt=stephen+breen+cartoons&qpvt=stephen+breen+cartoons&FORM=IGRE 67

  37. Paul Conrad 1984 Pulitzer Prizehttps://www.bing.com/search?q=paul+conrad+cartoons&form=PRUSEN&pc=SL5L&mkt=en-us&httpsmsn=1&refig=2d72d492f0df4c198d846134bc1e7d2a&pq=paul+conrad+cartoons&sc=3-20&sp=-1&qs=n&sk=&cvid=2d72d492f0df4c198d846134bc1e7d2a 67

  38. Matt Davies 2004 Pulitzer Prizehttp://mattdaviescartoon.com/ 67

  39. Jules Feiffer 1986 Pulitzer Prizehttps://www.bing.com/images/search?q=jules+feiffer+cartoons&qpvt=jules+feiffer+cartoons&qpvt=jules+feiffer+cartoons&qpvt=jules+feiffer+cartoons&FORM=IGRE 67

  40. Mark Fiore2010 Pulitzer Prizehttps://www.bing.com/images/search?q=mark+fiore+cartoons&qpvt=mark+fiore+cartoons&qpvt=mark+fiore+cartoons&qpvt=mark+fiore+cartoons&FORM=IGRE 67

  41. Walt Handelsman 1997 & 2007 Pulitzer Prizehttp://www.walthandelsman.com/ 67

  42. Jack Higgins 1989 Pulitzer Prizehttp://projects.suntimes.com/koschman/galleries/jack-higgins-cartoons-3/ 67

  43. David Horsey 1999 & 2003 Pulitzer Prizehttp://www.latimes.com/nation/ 67

  44. Mike Keefe 2011 Pulitzer Prizehttps://www.bing.com/images/search?q=mike+keefe+cartoonist&qpvt=mike+keefe+cartoonist&qpvt=mike+keefe+cartoonist&qpvt=mike+keefe+cartoonist&FORM=IGRE 67

  45. Richard Locher 1983 Pulitzer Prizehttp://www.tcj.com/the-locher-legend/ 67

  46. Mike Luckovich 1995 & 2006 Pulitzer Prizehttp://luckovich.blog.ajc.com/ 67

  47. Jeff MacNelly 1978 & 1985 Pulitzer Prizehttp://www.shoecomics.com/macnelly-editorials.php 67

  48. Doug Marlette 1988 Pulitzer Prizehttp://www.dougmarlette.com/early-years/ 67

  49. Jim Morin 1996 Pulitzer Prizehttp://www.jimmorin.com/ 67

  50. Jack Ohman 2016 Pulitzer Prizehttp://www.sacbee.com/opinion/editorial-cartoons/jack-ohman/article96538167.html 67