Clustering schemes for mobile ad hoc network
Download
1 / 42

CLUSTERING SCHEMES FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 171 Views
  • Uploaded on

CLUSTERING SCHEMES FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK. Speaker : Fu-Yuan Chuang Advisor : Ho-Ting Wu Date : 2006.04.25. Outline. Introduction Clustering Scheme Overview Classifying Clustering Schemes DS-based clustering Wu’s CDS Algorithm Chen’s WCDS Algorithm Summary of DS-based Clustering.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'CLUSTERING SCHEMES FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK' - nguyet


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Clustering schemes for mobile ad hoc network

CLUSTERING SCHEMES FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK

Speaker:Fu-Yuan Chuang

Advisor:Ho-Ting Wu

Date:2006.04.25


Outline
Outline

  • Introduction

  • Clustering Scheme Overview

  • Classifying Clustering Schemes

  • DS-based clustering

    • Wu’s CDS Algorithm

    • Chen’s WCDS Algorithm

  • Summary of DS-based Clustering


Introduction
Introduction

  • Dynamic routing is the most important issue in MANETs

  • A flat structure encounters scalability problem

  • Proactive routing protocols is O(n^2)

  • Reactive routing sheme:

    • RREQ flooding over the whole network

    • Route setup delay

  • A hierarchical architecture


Clustering scheme overview
Clustering Scheme Overview

  • Virtual group

  • Clusterhead

    • a local coordinator, performing intra-cluster transmission arrangement, data forwarding

  • Clustergateway

    • non-clusterhead node with inter-cluster links access neighboring clusters, forward information between clusters

  • Clustermember

    • ordinary node, non-clusterhead node without any inter-cluster links


Three benefits
Three Benefits

  • spatial reuse of resources to increase the system capacity

    • the same frequency or code set

  • routing

    • The generation and spreading of routing information can be restricted in the set of clusterheads and clustergateways

  • an ad hoc network appear smaller and more stable in the view of each mobile terminal

    • when a mobile node changes its attaching cluster, only nodes residing in the corresponding clusters need to update the information


The cost of clustering 1 3
The cost of clustering (1/3)

  • Explicit control message for clustering

    • Clustering requires explicit clustering-related information exchanged between node pairs

  • Ripple effect of re-clustering

    • The re-election of a single clusterhead may affect the cluster structure of many other clusters and completely alter the cluster topology over the whole network


The cost of clustering 2 3
The cost of clustering (2/3)

  • Stationary assumption for cluster formation

    • Assume that mobile nodes keep static when cluster formation is in progress

  • Constant Computation round

    • Computation round is the number of rounds that a cluster formation procedure


The cost of clustering 3 3
The cost of clustering (3/3)

  • Communication complexity

    • The total amount of clustering-related message exchanged for the cluster formation


Classifying clustering schemes 1 3
Classifying Clustering Schemes(1/3)

  • DS-based clustering

    • Finding a (weakly) connected dominating set to reduce the number of nodes participating in route search or routing table maintenance

  • Low-maintenance clustering

    • Providing a cluster infrastructure for upper layer applications with minimized clustering-related maintenance cost


Classifying clustering schemes 2 3
Classifying Clustering Schemes(2/3)

  • Mobility-aware clustering

    • Utilizing mobile nodes’ mobility behavior for cluster construction and maintenance and assigning mobile nodes with low relative speed to the same cluster to tighten the connection in such a cluster

  • Energy-efficient clustering

    • Avoiding unnecessary energy consumption or balancing energy consumption for mobile nodes in order to prolong the lifetime of mobile terminals and a network


Classifying clustering schemes 3 3
Classifying Clustering Schemes(3/3)

  • Load-balancing clustering

    • Distributing the workload of a network more evenly into clusters by limiting the number of mobile nodes in each cluster in a defined range

  • Combined-metrics-based clustering

    • Considering multiple metrics in cluster configuration, including node degree, mobility, battery energy, cluster size


Ds based clustering
DS-based clustering

  • A dominating set of a graph G= (V, E) is a vertex subset S⊆V , such that every vertex v∈V is either in S or adjacent to a vertex of S

  • A connected dominating set (CDS) of a graph G is a dominating set whose induced graph is connected


Ds based clustering cont
DS-based clustering(cont.)

  • Table-driven routing

    • Only codes in the CDS are required to construct and maintain the routing tables

  • On-demand routing

    • The route search space is limited to the CDS

  • To keep a DS connected and with approximately minimum size is not a trivial task


Ds based clustering algorithm wu s cds algorithm
DS-based clustering AlgorithmWu’s CDS Algorithm

  • Marking Process

    • To find CDS

  • Prune redundant nodes from CDS

    • To reduce the size of CDS


Marking process
Marking Process

Define a network as a graph G = (V,E)

  • Initially, all nodes are unmarked

  • Every v exchanges its N(v) with all its neighbors

  • Mark v if there exists 2 unconnected neighbors


Example
Example

A B C E

Open neighbors set of all nodes:

N(A) = {B,D}

N(B) = {A,C,D}

N(C) = {B, E}

N(D) = {A, B}

N(E) = {C}

D

After step 2:

A: N(B), N(D)

B: N(A), N(C), N(D)

C: N(B), N(E)

D: N(A), N(B)

E: N(C)


Prune redundant nodes from cds
Prune redundant nodes from CDS

  • Assign a distinct id, id(v) to each vertex v in G

  • Define N[v] as a closed neighbor set of v


Prune redundant nodes from cds1
Prune redundant nodes from CDS

  • Rule 1: Considers two vertices v and u in G’. If N[v] N[u] in G, and id(v) < id(u),change the marker of v to F if node v is marded


Prune redundant nodes from cds2
Prune redundant nodes from CDS

  • Rule 2: Assume u and w are two marked neighbors of marked vertex v in G’. If N(v) N(u) U N(w) in G and id(v) = min{id(v), id(u), id(w)}, then unmark v.


Ds based clustering algorithm chen s wcds algorithm
DS-based clustering AlgorithmChen’s WCDS Algorithm

  • Reduce the number of clusters by relaxing the connectivity requirement

  • The subgraph weakly induced by S(S⊆V) is the graph <S>w=(N [S], E ∩ (N [S]×S)).

  • <S>w includes the vertices in S and all of their neighbors as vertex set

  • The edges of <S>w are all edges of G which have at least one end point in S


Weakly induced subgraph example
Weakly induced subgraph (example)

Vertex set: black vertices

Edge set: black lines


Weakly connected dominating set
Weakly-connected dominating set

  • A vertex subset S is a weakly-connected dominating set (WCDS), if S is a dominating set and <S>w is connected


Algorithms for finding small wcds
Algorithms for finding small WCDS

  • Algorithm I and II: Two centralized algorithms

  • Algorithm III and IV: Distributed Implementations of Algorithm I and II

  • Algorithm V: Distributed Asynchronous Approach


Chen s wcds algo i overview
Chen’s WCDS Algo I (overview)

  • Given a graph G=(V,E), each vertex is associated with a color (white, gray, or black)

  • All vertices are initially colored white

  • In each iteration, the algorithm color a white or gray vertex black and all its neighboring white vertices gray

  • At the end, the black vertices form a weakly-connected dominating set


Term piece
Term: piece

  • Piece refers to a particular substructure of the graph

  • A white piece is simply

    a white vertex

  • A black piece contains a

    maximal set of black

    vertices whose weakly

    induced subgraph is

    connected plus any

    adjacent gray vertices

The pieces are indicated by dotted regions


Term improvement
Term: improvement

  • The improvement of a (non-black) vertex u is the number of pieces that would be merged into a single black piece if u were to be dyed black

  • In last example, dying vertex 5 black would merge 4 piece, while dying vertex 4 would merge 3 pieces


Chen s wcds algo i detail
Chen’s WCDS Algo I(detail)

  • In each iteration, the algorithm choose a single white or gray vertex to dye black

  • The vertex is chosen greedily: a vertex with maximum improvement is chosen

  • Until there is only one piece left


Clustering schemes for mobile ad hoc network

Initially, all nodes are white

4

5

4

7

5

6

5

4

7

7

5

3

4

5

4

5

3

3

3

3


Clustering schemes for mobile ad hoc network

First Iteration

4

5

4

7

5

6

5

4

7

7

5

3

4

5

4

5

3

3

3

3


Clustering schemes for mobile ad hoc network

4

4

5

2

5

3

2

3

4

5

4

5

3

3

3

3


Clustering schemes for mobile ad hoc network

Second Iteration

4

4

5

2

5

3

2

3

4

5

4

5

3

3

3


Clustering schemes for mobile ad hoc network

4

4

5

2

5

3

2

3

2

4

3

3

3


Clustering schemes for mobile ad hoc network

Third Iteration

4

4

5

2

5

3

2

3

2

4

3

3

3


Clustering schemes for mobile ad hoc network

3

2

3

4

3

3

3


Clustering schemes for mobile ad hoc network

Fourth Iteration

3

2

3

4

3

3

3


Clustering schemes for mobile ad hoc network

2

2

3

3





References
References

  • J. Y. YU and P. H. J. CHONG, "A Survey of Clustering Schemes for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, First Quarter 2005, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 32--48.

  • J. Wu and H. L. Li, “On Calculating Connected Dominating Set for Efficient Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. 3rd Int’l. Wksp. Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Comp. and Commun., 1999, pp. 7–14

  • Y.-Z. P. Chen and A. L. Liestman, “Approximating Minimum Size Weakly-Connected Dominating Sets for Clustering Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” in Proc. 3rd ACM Int’l. Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Net. & Comp., June 2002, pp. 165–72.