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Chapter 9. Capital Budgeting. Introduction. Capital budgeting involves planning and justifying large expenditures on long-term projects Projects can be classified as: Replacement New business ventures. Characteristics of Business Projects. Project Types and Risk

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introduction
Introduction
  • Capital budgeting involves planning and justifying large expenditures on long-term projects
    • Projects can be classified as:
      • Replacement
      • New business ventures
characteristics of business projects
Characteristics of Business Projects
  • Project Types and Risk
    • Capital projects have increasing risk according to whether they are replacements, expansions or new ventures
  • Stand-Alone and Mutually Exclusive Projects
    • A stand-alone project has no competing alternatives
      • The project is judged on its own viability
    • Mutually exclusive projects are involved when selecting one project excludes selecting the other
characteristics of business projects1
Characteristics of Business Projects
  • Project Cash Flows
    • The first and usually most difficult step in capital budgeting is reducing projects to a series of cash flows
    • Business projects involve early cash outflows and later inflows
      • The initial outlay is required to get started
  • The Cost of Capital
    • A firm’s cost of capital is the average rate it pays its investors for the use of their money
      • In general a firm can raise money from two sources: debt and equity
      • If a potential project is expected to generate a return greater than the cost of the money to finance it, it is a good investment
capital budgeting techniques
Capital Budgeting Techniques
  • There are four basic techniques for determining a project’s financial viability:
    • Payback (determines how many years it takes to recover a project’s initial cost)
    • Net Present Value (determines by how much the present value of the project’s inflows exceeds the present value of its outflows)
    • Internal Rate of Return (determines the rate of return the project earns [internally])
    • Profitability Index (provides a ratio of a project’s inflows vs. outflows—in present value terms)
capital budgeting techniques payback
Capital Budgeting Techniques—Payback
  • The payback period is the time it takes to recover early cash outflows
    • Shorter paybacks are better
  • Payback Decision Rules
    • Stand-alone projects
      • If the payback period < (>) policy maximum accept (reject)
    • Mutually Exclusive Projects
      • If PaybackA < PaybackB choose Project A
  • Weaknesses of the Payback Method
    • Ignores the time value of money
    • Ignores the cash flows after the payback period
capital budgeting techniques payback1
Capital Budgeting Techniques—Payback
  • Consider the following cash flows
  • Payback period is easily visualized by the cumulative cash flows

Payback period occurs at 3.33 years.

capital budgeting techniques payback example

Q: Use the payback period technique to choose between mutually exclusive projects A and B.

Project A

Project B

C0

($1,200)

($1,200)

C1

400

400

C2

400

400

Example

C3

400

350

C4

200

800

C5

200

800

A: Project A’s payback is 3 years as its initial outlay is fully recovered in that time. Project B doesn’t fully recover until sometime in the 4th year. Thus, according to the payback method, Project A is better than B.

Capital Budgeting Techniques—Payback—Example
capital budgeting techniques payback2
Capital Budgeting Techniques—Payback
  • Why Use the Payback Method?
    • It’s quick and easy to apply
    • Serves as a rough screening device
  • The Present Value Payback Method
    • Involves finding the present value of the project’s cash flows then calculating the project’s payback
capital budgeting techniques net present value npv
Capital Budgeting Techniques—Net Present Value (NPV)
  • NPV is the sum of the present values of a project’s cash flows at the cost of capital
  • If PVinflows > PVoutflows, NPV > 0
capital budgeting techniques net present value npv1
Capital Budgeting Techniques—Net Present Value (NPV)
  • NPV and Shareholder Wealth
    • A project’s NPV is the net effect that undertaking a project is expected to have on the firm’s value
      • A project with an NPV > (<) 0 should increase (decrease) firm value
    • Since the firm desires to maximize shareholder wealth, it should select the capital spending program with the highest NPV
capital budgeting techniques net present value npv2
Capital Budgeting Techniques—Net Present Value (NPV)
  • Decision Rules
    • Stand-alone Projects
      • NPV > 0  accept
      • NPV < 0  reject
    • Mutually Exclusive Projects
      • NPVA > NPVB  choose Project A over B
capital budgeting techniques net present value npv example

Q: Project Alpha has the following cash flows. If the firm considering Alpha has a cost of capital of 12%, should the project be undertaken?

C0

($5,000)

C1

$1,000

C2

$2,000

C3

$3,000

Example

A: The NPV is found by summing the present value of the cash flows when discounted at the firm’s cost of capital.

Since Alpha’s NPV<0, it should not be undertaken.

Capital Budgeting Techniques—Net Present Value (NPV) Example
techniques internal rate of return irr
Techniques—Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
  • A project’s IRR is the return it generates on the investment of its cash outflows
    • For example, if a project has the following cash flows

The “price” of receiving

the inflows

  • The IRR is the interest rate at which the present value of the three inflows just equals the $5,000 outflow
techniques internal rate of return irr1
Techniques—Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
  • Defining IRR Through the NPV Equation
    • The IRR is the interest rate that makes a project’s NPV zero
techniques internal rate of return irr2
Techniques—Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
  • Decision Rules
    • Stand-alone Projects
      • If IRR > cost of capital (or k)  accept
      • If IRR < cost of capital (or k)  reject
    • Mutually Exclusive Projects
      • IRRA > IRRB  choose Project A over Project B
techniques internal rate of return irr3
Techniques—Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
  • Calculating IRRs
    • Finding IRRs usually requires an iterative, trial-and-error technique
      • Guess at the project’s IRR
      • Calculate the project’s NPV using this interest rate
        • If NPV is zero, the guessed interest rate is the project’s IRR
        • If NPV > (<) 0, try a new, higher (lower) interest rate
techniques internal rate of return irr example

Q: Find the IRR for the following series of cash flows:

If the firm’s cost of capital is 8%, is the project a good idea? What if the cost of capital is 10%?

C0

C1

C2

C3

($5,000)

$1,000

$2,000

$3,000

A: We’ll start by guessing an IRR of 12%. We’ll calculate the project’s NPV at this interest rate.

Example

Since NPV<0, the project’s IRR must be < 12%.

Techniques—Internal Rate of Return (IRR)—Example
techniques internal rate of return irr example1

We’ll try a different, lower interest rate, say 10%. At 10%, the project’s NPV is ($184). Since the NPV is still less than zero, we need to try a still lower interest rate, say 9%. The following table lists the project’s NPV at different interest rates.

Since NPV becomes positive somewhere between 8% and 9%, the project’s IRR must be between 8% and 9%. If the firm’s cost of capital is 8%, the project is marginal. If the firm’s cost of capital is 10%, the project is not a good idea.

Interest Rate Guess

Calculated NPV

12%

($377)

10

($184)

Example

9

($83)

8

$22

7

$130

The exact IRR can be calculated using a financial calculator. The financial calculator uses the iterative process just demonstrated; however it is capable of guessing and recalculating much more quickly.

Techniques—Internal Rate of Return (IRR)—Example
techniques internal rate of return irr4
Techniques—Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
  • Technical Problems with IRR
    • Multiple Solutions
      • Unusual projects can have more than one IRR
        • Rarely presents practical difficulties
      • The number of positive IRRs to a project depends on the number of sign reversals to the project’s cash flows
        • Normal pattern involves only one sign change
    • The Reinvestment Assumption
      • IRR method implicitly assumes cash inflows will be reinvested at the project’s IRR
        • For projects with extremely high IRRs, this is unlikely
npv profile
NPV Profile
  • A project’s NPV profile is a graph of its NPV vs. the cost of capital
  • It crosses the horizontal axis at the IRR
comparing irr and npv
Comparing IRR and NPV
  • NPV and IRR do not always provide the same decision for a project’s acceptance
    • Occasionally give conflicting results in mutually exclusive decisions
  • If two projects’ NPV profiles cross it means below a certain cost of capital one project is acceptable over the other and above that cost of capital the other project is acceptable over the first
    • The NPV profiles have to cross in the first quadrant of the graph, where interest rates are of practical interest
  • The NPV method is the preferred decision-making criterion because the reinvestment interest rate assumption is more practical
npv and irr solutions using financial calculators
NPV and IRR Solutions Using Financial Calculators
  • Modern financial calculators and spreadsheets remove the drudgery from calculating NPV and IRR
    • Especially IRR
  • The process involves inputting a project’s cash flows and then having the calculators calculate NPV and IRR
    • Note that a project’s interest rate is needed to calculate NPV
spreadsheets
Spreadsheets
  • NPV function in Microsoft Excel
    • =NPV(interest rate, Cash Flow1:Cash Flown) + Cash Flow0
      • Every cash flow within the parentheses is discounted at the interest rate
  • IRR function in Microsoft Excel
    • =IRR(Cash Flow0:Cash Flown)
projects with a single outflow and regular inflows
Projects with a Single Outflow and Regular Inflows
  • Many projects have one outflow at time 0 and inflows representing an annuity stream
  • For example, consider the following cash flows
  • In this case, the NPV formula can be rewritten as
    • NPV = C0 + C[PVFAk, n]
  • The IRR formula can be rewritten as
    • 0 = C0 + C[PVFAIRR, n]
projects with a single outflow and regular inflows example

Q: Find the NPV and IRR for the following series of cash flows:

C0

C1

C2

C3

($5,000)

$2,000

$2,000

$2,000

A: Substituting the cash flows into the NPV equation with annuity inflows we have:

NPV = -$5,000 + $2,000[PVFA12, 3]

NPV = -$5,000 + $2,000[2.4018] = -$196.40

Substituting the cash flows into the IRR equation with annuity inflows we have:

0 = -$5,000 + $2,000[PVFAIRR, 3]

Solving for the factor gives us:

$5,000  $2,000 = [PVFAIRR, 3]

The interest factor is 2.5 which equates to an interest rate between 9% and 10%.

Example

Projects with a Single Outflow and Regular Inflows—Example
profitability index pi
Profitability Index (PI)
  • The profitability index is a variation on the NPV method
  • It is a ratio of the present value of a project’s inflows to the present value of a project’s outflows
  • Projects are acceptable if PI>1
    • Larger PIs are preferred
profitability index pi1
Profitability Index (PI)
  • Also known as the benefit/cost ratio
    • Positive future cash flows are the benefit
    • Negative initial outlay is the cost
profitability index pi2
Profitability Index (PI)
  • Decision Rules
    • Stand-alone Projects
      • If PI > 1.0  accept
      • If PI < 1.0  reject
    • Mutually Exclusive Projects
      • PIA > PIB choose Project A over Project B
  • Comparison with NPV
    • With mutually exclusive projects the two methods may not lead to the same choices
comparing projects with unequal lives
Comparing Projects with Unequal Lives
  • If a significant difference exists between mutually exclusive projects’ lives, a direct comparison of the projects is meaningless
  • The problem arises due to the NPV method
    • Longer lived projects almost always have higher NPVs
comparing projects with unequal lives1
Comparing Projects with Unequal Lives
  • Two solutions exist
    • Replacement Chain Method
      • Extends projects until a common time horizon is reached
        • For example, if mutually exclusive Projects A (with a life of 3 years) and B (with a life of 5 years) are being compared, both projects will be replicated so that they each last 15 years
    • Equivalent Annual Annuity (EAA) Method
      • Replaces each project with an equivalent perpetuity that equates to the project’s original NPV
comparing projects with unequal lives example

Q: Which of the two following mutually exclusive projects should a firm purchase?

C0

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

Short-Lived Project (NPV = $432.82 at an 8% discount rate; IRR = 23.4%)

($1,500)

$750

$750

$750

-

-

-

Long-Lived Project (NPV = $867.16 at an 8% discount rate; IRR = 18.3%)

Example

($2,600)

$750

$750

$750

$750

$750

$750

A: The IRR method argues for undertaking the Short-Lived Project while the NPV method argues for the Long-Lived Project. We’ll correct for the unequal life problem by using both the Replacement Chain Method and the EAA Method. Both methods will lead to the same decision.

Comparing Projects with Unequal Lives—Example
comparing projects with unequal lives example1

The Replacement Chain Method involves replicating all projects (if needed) until each project being evaluated has a common time horizon. If the Short-Lived Project is replicated for a total of two times, it will have the same life (6 years) as the Long-Lived Project. This involves buying the Short-Lived Project again in year 3 and receiving the same stream of cash flows as originally expected for the following three years. This stream of cash flows is represented in the table below.

C0

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

Short-Lived Project replicated for a total of two times

Example

($1,500)

$750

$750

$750

-

-

-

($1,500)

$750

$750

$750

($750)

Thus, buying the Long-Lived Project is a better decision than buying the Short-Lived Project twice.

The NPV of this stream of cash flows is $776.41.

Comparing Projects with Unequal Lives—Example
comparing projects with unequal lives example2

The EAA Method equates each project’s original NPV to an equivalent annual annuity. For the Short-Lived Project the EAA is $167.95 (the equivalent of receiving $432.82 spread out over 3 years at 8%); while the Long-Lived Project has an EAA of $187.58 (the equivalent of receiving $867.16 spread out over 6 years at 8%). Since the Long-Lived Project has the higher EAA, it should be chosen. This is the same decision reached by the Replacement Chain Method.

Example

Comparing Projects with Unequal Lives—Example
capital rationing
Capital Rationing
  • Capital rationing exists when there is a limit (cap) to the amount of funds available for investment in new projects
  • Thus, there may be some projects with +NPVs, IRRs > discount rate or PIs >1 that will be rejected, simply because there isn’t enough money available
  • How do you choose the set of projects in which to invest?
    • Use complex mathematical process called constrained maximization