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Bell Work. Dogs of a certain breed can have black fur or white fur. Black fur is dominant, but the breeder only wants puppies with white fur. Cross two heterozygous dogs until that happens. . Biology – Lecture 59. Phylogeny. Taxonomy.

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bell work
Bell Work
  • Dogs of a certain breed can have black fur or white fur. Black fur is dominant, but the breeder only wants puppies with white fur. Cross two heterozygous dogs until that happens.
  • The classification, identification, and naming of organisms
  • Connected to phylogenetics
  • The study of evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms which are discovered through molecular sequencing data and morphological data matrices.
  • The evolutionary history of taxonomic groups
  • Made from the results of phylogenetic studies
phylogeny branches
Phylogeny Branches
  • Evolution is a branching process.
  • Populations are altered over time and may split into separate branches, hybridize together, or terminate by extinction.
phylogenetic tree
Phylogenetic Tree
  • A hypothesis of the order in which evolutionary events are assumed to have occurred.
tracing relationships
Tracing Relationships
  • Biologists estimate that there are about 5 to 100 million species of organisms living on Earth today.
tracing relationships1
Tracing Relationships
  • Evidence suggests that all organisms on Earth are genetically related, and the genealogical relationships of living things can be represented by a vast evolutionary tree, the Tree of Life.
the tree of life
The Tree of Life
  • Phylogenetic analyses have become essential in researching the evolutionary tree of life.
  • The tree of life is a large project to trace the evolutionary relationships of large groups of organisms.
the tree of life1
The Tree of Life
  • Implies that different species arise from previous species and that all organisms are connected via descent to one another.
how is a phylogeny created
How is a Phylogeny Created?
  • Matrix-based methods are used to construct trees based on overall similarity, which is often assumed to approximate phylogenetic relationships.
flaws of hypothesis
Flaws of Hypothesis
  • There is no way to measure whether a particular phylogenetic hypothesis is accurate or not, unless the true relationships among the taxa being examined are already known.
phylogeny vocabulary
Phylogeny Vocabulary
  • Monophyletic clade – all the members in a group with the same characteristics
  • Synapomorphy – a particular trait within the phylogeny
  • Autapomorphic trait – only one organism has this trait
  • Outgroup - The simplest form of a common ancestor
  • Sister Groups – Two groups that can be traced back to a single split.
example phylogeny of beasties
Example - Phylogeny of Beasties
  • Reconstruct the evolutionary history of a group of imaginary organisms known as Beasties.
  • The Beasties are a morphologically diverse group, and your analysis will take advantage of this diversity.
  • You will infer the simplest phylogenetic tree for the group of Beasties.
  • The outgroup taxon is indicated, as are six other Beastie taxa (A-F).
step 1
Step 1
  • Conduct a character analysis by examining the similarities and differences.
step 2
Step 2
  • Figure out those that are most similar to one another.
  • Start by comparing to the Outgroup (if given).
  • If no outgroup is given, start with the one with the most “no” responses.
step 3
Step 3
  • Draw the initial branch and then make branches off of that branch based on the similarities and differences of the organisms.
answer phylogeny









Pointed Feet

Brushy Tail


Branched Antenna



Answer Phylogeny