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3: Literature Reviews and Hypotheses. Literature Review. A literature review is a comprehensive examination of available information that is related to your research topic. Reasons for conducting a literature review. Clarify the research problem and questions Uncover existing studies

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Literature review
Literature Review

Aliterature review is a comprehensive

examination of available information

that is related to your research topic.

Reasons for conducting a literature review
Reasons for conducting a literature review

  • Clarify the research problem and questions

  • Uncover existing studies

  • Suggest research hypotheses

  • Identify available scales, measures variables and methods

  • Avoid duplication of effort

Key terms
Key terms

  • Variables

    • Gender, Age, Preference, Purchase Likelihood

  • Constructs

    • Satisfaction, Brand Loyalty, Intelligence

  • Hypothesis (-es)

    • “Good moods lead to more purchases.”

  • Conceptualization

    Conceptualization refers to the

    development of a model

    that shows variables

    and the hypothesized

    relationships between those variables.

    Relationships and variables
    Relationships and variables





    Relationships and variables1
    Relationships and variables

    Control Variables

    Confounding Variables

    Process of conceptualization
    Process of Conceptualization

    • Identify Independent and Dependent variables

    • Specify relationships between the variables

    • Develop theory that justifies those relationships

    • Specify “boundary conditions” for relationships, if any

    • Identify any control or confounding variables

    A model of new technology adoption
    A Model of New Technology Adoption









    Openness to learning


    Technology discomfort


    A hypothesis is an empirically

    testable though yet unproven statement

    developed in order to explain


    Types of hypotheses
    Types of Hypotheses

    • Null

    • Alternate

      • Non-directional vs. Directional

      • Direct (positive) vs. Indirect (negative) relationships

    Examples null hypotheses
    Examples - Null Hypotheses

    • There is no significant difference between the preferences toward specific banking method exhibited by white-collar customers and blue-collar customers.

    • No significant differences exist in requests for specific medical treatments from emergency walk-in clinics between users and nonusers of annual preventive maintenance health care programs.

    Examples alternate hypotheses non directional
    Examples – Alternate Hypotheses, Non-directional

    • There is a significant difference in satisfaction levels reported by Safeway and Lucky shoppers.

    • Significant differences exist between males and females in the number of hours spent online.

    Examples alternate hypotheses directional
    Examples – Alternate Hypotheses, Directional

    • We expect higher satisfaction levels to be reported by Safeway shoppers thanLucky shoppers.

    • We expect to find that males spend significantly more hours online than females.

    Examples alternate hypotheses direct positive
    Examples – Alternate Hypotheses, Direct (positive)

    • More studying is related to higher GPAs.

    • Friendlier salespeople generate higher sales revenues.

    • Increases in advertising lead to higher sales.

    Examples alternate hypotheses indirect negative
    Examples – Alternate Hypotheses, Indirect (negative)

    • Students with high GPAs consume less alcohol than those with lower GPAs.

    • The more pressure to close sales perceived by salespeople, the fewer follow up, “relationship-building” sales calls made.

    Activity formulating research objectives and hypotheses
    ACTIVITY: Formulating Research Objectives and Hypotheses

    • Develop a simple research objective.

    • Formulate a simple hypothesis for your research objective. Specify the following:

      • Positive / Inverse relationship

      • Theory behind the relationships

      • Any boundary conditions for the model

      • Any control or confounding variables/factors