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Werner CEUSTERS Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences Ontology Research Group University at Buffalo PowerPoint Presentation
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Werner CEUSTERS Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences Ontology Research Group University at Buffalo
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  1. Discovery Seminar 035158/UE 141 MMM – Spring 2008Solving Crimes using Referent Tracking Building a Realism-based Crime Ontology- Introduction -Feb 20, 2008 Werner CEUSTERS Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences Ontology Research Group University at Buffalo, NY, USA

  2. What is (an) ontology ? • ‘Ontology’: the study of being as a science • ‘An ontology’ is a representation of some pre-existing domain of realitywhich • (1) reflects the properties of the objects within its domain in such a waythat there obtains a systematic correlation between realityand the representation itself, • (2) is intelligible to a domain expert • (3) is formalized in a way that allows it to support automatic information processing • ‘ontological’ (as adjective): • Within an ontology. • Derived by applying the methodology of ontology • ...

  3. Three levels of reality • The world exists ‘as it is’ prior to a cognitive agent’s perception thereof; • Cognitive agents build up ‘in their minds’ cognitive representations of the world; • To make these representations publicly accessible in some enduring fashion, they create representational artifacts that are fixed in some medium. Smith B, Kusnierczyk W, Schober D, Ceusters W. Towards a Reference Terminology for Ontology Research and Development in the Biomedical Domain. Proceedings of KR-MED 2006, November 8, 2006, Baltimore MD, USA

  4. Three levels of reality • The world exists ‘as it is’ prior to a cognitive agent’s perception thereof; Smith B, Kusnierczyk W, Schober D, Ceusters W. Towards a Reference Terminology for Ontology Research and Development in the Biomedical Domain. Proceedings of KR-MED 2006, November 8, 2006, Baltimore MD, USA

  5. R Reality exist before any observation

  6. R And also most structures in reality are there in advance. Reality exist before any observation

  7. Three levels of reality • The world exists ‘as it is’ prior to a cognitive agent’s perception thereof; • Cognitive agents build up ‘in their minds’ cognitive representations of the world; Smith B, Kusnierczyk W, Schober D, Ceusters W. Towards a Reference Terminology for Ontology Research and Development in the Biomedical Domain. Proceedings of KR-MED 2006, November 8, 2006, Baltimore MD, USA

  8. The ontology author acknowledges the existence of some Portion Of Reality (POR) B R

  9. B Some portions of reality escape his attention. R

  10. Three levels of reality • The world exists ‘as it is’ prior to a cognitive agent’s perception thereof; • Cognitive agents build up ‘in their minds’ cognitive representations of the world; • To make these representations publicly accessible in some enduring fashion, they create representational artifacts that are fixed in some medium. Smith B, Kusnierczyk W, Schober D, Ceusters W. Towards a Reference Terminology for Ontology Research and Development in the Biomedical Domain. Proceedings of KR-MED 2006, November 8, 2006, Baltimore MD, USA

  11. He represents only what he considers relevant B RU1B1 • Both RU1B1 and RU1O1 are representational units referring to #1; • RU1O1 is NOT a representation of RU1B1; • RU1O1 is created through concretization of RU1B1 in some medium. RU1O1 O #1 R

  12. We should not be in the business of “concept representation” Thus ... • These concretizations are NOT supposed to be the representations of these cognitive representations;

  13. But beware ! • These concretizations are NOT supposed to be the representations of these cognitive representations; • They are representations of the corresponding parts of reality • They are like the images taken by means of a high quality camera;

  14. They are not(or should not be) like the paintings of Salvador Dali Non-canonical (although nice looking) anatomy

  15. Some characteristics of representational units • each unit is assumed by the creators of the representation to be veridical, i.e. to conform to some relevant POR as conceived on the best current scientific understanding;

  16. Some characteristics of representational units • each unit is assumed by the creators of the representation to be veridical, i.e. to conform to some relevant POR as conceived on the best current scientific understanding; • several units may correspond to the same POR by presenting different though still veridical views or perspectives;

  17. Some characteristics of representational units • each unit is assumed by the creators of the representation to be veridical, i.e. to conform to some relevant POR as conceived on the best current scientific understanding; • several units may correspond to the same POR by presenting different though still veridical views or perspectives; • what is to be represented by the units in a representation depends on the purposes which the representation is designed to serve.

  18. Some characteristics of an optimal ontology • Each representational unit in such an ontology would designate • (1) a single portion of reality (POR), which is • (2) relevant to the purposes of the ontology and such that • (3) the authors of the ontology intended to use this unit to designate this POR, and • (4) there would be no PORs objectively relevant to these purposes that are not referred to in the ontology.

  19. Remember … what is an ontology ? • ‘An ontology’ is a representation of some pre-existing domain of realitywhich • (1) reflects the properties of the objects within its domain in such a waythat there obtains a systematic correlation between realityand the representation itself, • (2) is intelligible to a domain expert • (3) is formalized in a way that allows it to support automatic information processing

  20. A realist view of the world • The world consists of • entities that are • Either particulars or universals; • Either occurrents or continuants; • Either dependent or independent; and, • relationships between these entities of the form • <particular , universal> e.g. is-instance-of, • <particular , particular> e.g. is-member-of • <universal , universal> e.g. isa (is-subtype-of) Smith B, Kusnierczyk W, Schober D, Ceusters W. Towards a Reference Terminology for Ontology Research and Development in the Biomedical Domain. Proceedings of KR-MED 2006, November 8, 2006, Baltimore MD, USA

  21. Continuants versus Occurrents • Continuants (aka endurants) • have continuous existence in time • preserve their identity through change • exist in toto whenever they exist at all • Occurrents (aka processes) • have temporal parts • unfold themselves in successive phases • exist only in their phases

  22. You are a continuant • Your life is an occurrent • You are 3-dimensional • Your life is 4-dimensional

  23. Dependent entities require independent continuants as their bearers There is no run without a runner There is no grin without a cat

  24. Dependent vs. independent continuants • Independent continuants (persons, knifes, buildings) • Dependent continuants • qualities : sharp, red • shapes : round, square • roles: judge • propensities: breakable • functions: to make noise

  25. All occurrents are dependent entities • They are dependent on those independent continuants which are their participants (agents, patients, media ...) • Stabbing • Punching • Running

  26. Top-Level Ontology Continuant Occurrent (always dependent on one or more independent continuants) Independent Continuant Dependent Continuant Role Function Propensity

  27. Words collected in previous assignment adjournment during the Trial or Hearing foul play perpetrator guilty lawbreaker prisoner criminal witness intriguing mobster acquitted culprit alleged victim suspect convict detainee predator inculpate charge inmate weapon evidence robber wrongdoer verdict felon appeal arraigned accused investigation brief delinquent trial admissible murderer subhuman offender defendant sentencing jury alleged offender judge incrimate arrest interrogation lawyer forensic evidence

  28. Each word came with several definitions, e.g. ‘suspect’ • to doubt or mistrust. • to believe to be the case or to be likely or probable; surmise. • one who is suspected of something. • one who is suspected of having committed a crime. • someone who is under suspicion • to think (a person etc) guilty • to believe to be guilty, false, counterfeit, undesirable, defective, bad. • to have doubts about; distrust • person being accused of a crime, before conviction or trial • to have an idea or impression of existence or idea without certain proof.

  29. Assignment • The last 7 slides of this presentation contain the words and definitions given by the students. • Deliver to me in powerpoint by March 7 at the latest: • For each entity defined by a ‘word – definition’ combination, indicate to what ‘yellow’ category on the ‘top level ontology’ slide they belong • ! Sometimes definitions need to be split also • ! Sometimes definitions which are phrased differently define the same entity. In this case: indicate which ones. • Make a list of the relevant words which are used in a definition but are not on the original list (of slide 27) or for which an applicable definition is not provided • For the new words on the former list: give a definition and proceed with the combination as in a) here above. • You may collaborate: everything must be covered by the totality of your contributions but not necessarily by each individual contribution  SOLVING CRIMES IS TEAMWORK!

  30. Example • ‘suspect’ • person being accused of a crime, before conviction or trial  entity = suspect-1 • to think (a person etc) guilty  entity = suspect-2 • Step a) • Suspect-1: independent continuant • Suspect-2: occurrent • Step b): missing words • From suspect-1: Person, crime, conviction, to accuse • From suspect-2: to think

  31. Response (2) Suspect to doubt or mistrust. to believe to be the case or to be likely or probable; surmise. Victim a living creature sacrificed in religious rites. a person who suffers from a destructive or injurious action or agency Interrogation to ask questions formally. to rule over. Investigation the act or process of investigating or the condition of being investigated. a searching inquiry for ascertaining facts; detailed or careful examination. Evidence something that makes plain or clear; an indication or sign. data presented to a court or jury in proof of the facts in issue and which may include the testimony of witnesses, records, documents, or objects. Foulplay unfair conduct in a game. any treacherous or unfair dealing, esp. involving murder. Trial a person or thing that is a source of annoyance or irritation. the act or process of trying, testing, or putting to the proof. Jury a group of persons chosen to adjudge prizes, awards, etc., as in a competition. a group of persons sworn to render a verdict or true answer on a question or questions officially submitted to them. judge an administrative head of Israel in the period between the death of Joshua and the accession to the throne by Saul. a public officer authorized to hear and decide cases in a court of law; a magistrate charged with the administration of justice. Lawyer an interpreter of the Mosaic Law. a person whose profession is to represent clients in a court of law or to advise or act for clients in other legal matters. Witness a person or thing that affords evidence. to see, hear, or know by personal presence and perception: to witness an accident. Weapon to supply or equip with a weapon or weapons. anything used against an opponent, adversary, or victim Dictionary.com

  32. Response (3) Suspect One who is suspected of something. One who is suspected of having committed a crime. Felon a wicked person. Someone who has committed a felony. Convict a person serving a prison sentence. A person proved or declared guilty of an offense. Accused a person or persons charged in a court of law with a crime, offense. A defendant in a criminal proceeding Defendant a person, company, etc., against whom a claim or charge is brought in a court. A person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law; the person being sued or accused. Prisoner a person who is confined in prison or kept in custody, esp. as the result of legal process. A person or thing that is deprived of liberty or kept in restraint. Inmate a person who dwells with others in the same house. A person who is confined in a prison, hospital, etc. Murderer a person who commits murder. A criminal who commits homicide. Criminal a person guilty or convicted of a crime. One that has committed or been legally convicted of a crime. Offender a person who transgresses moral or civil law. A person who offends, especially against the law No source given

  33. Response (5) Accused the person charged with committing the crime. Acquitted When the magistrate, judge or jury find that a person is not guilty of the crime. Adjournment during the Trial or Hearing A break for morning tea or lunch or for ‘legal argument’ (see below) It can also mean when a trial is put off until another day. Admissible Used to describe evidence that is allowed to be given in court. Arrest the procedure where a person is taken into police custody to be charged with a criminal offence or to be brought before a court and must remain in police custody until they receive bail or until a court deals with their charges. Alleged offender until a person is proved to be guilty of a crime; the person is an alleged offender. Appeal To take a case to a higher court in order to challenge a decision. The person who appeals is the appellant. Brief the evidence in written form, including the charge(s), witness statements, photographs etc. that the prosecution intends to use to prove the case. Charge the allegation that a person has committed a specific crime. Forensic Evidence Evidence found where the crime happened, such as fingerprints, results of blood tests, DNA etc Sentencing A range of penalties can be given during sentencing of a convicted offender including imprisonment, community service orders, good behavior bonds and fines. Verdict The decision of a jury in a criminal trial. Victim the person against whom a crime has been committed The Courtwise Dictionary http://www.courtwise.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/victimsservices/ll_courtwise.nsf/pages/courtwise_dictionary#h

  34. Response (7) Predator a company that tries to take over another; a rapist, exploitive person or group; an animal that naturally preys on another. Criminal a person who has committed a crime. Intriguing to arose curiosity or interest Suspect to have an idea or impression of existence or idea without certain proof. Subhuman not worthy of human being, debased or depraved. Defendant individual company or institution accused in the court of law. Bardsely, Marilyn, and Steve Huff. "Taylor Behl Murder Case." TruTV Crime Library. 2 Feb. 2008 <http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/taylor_behl/taylor_behl_jump_page.html>.

  35. Response (9) Culprit person who committed a crime, not necessarily convicted Criminal name given to a person after they have been convicted or committed a crime Accused person accused of a crime before they are convicted Delinquent person accused of a crime or criminal behavior Convict name of a person after conviction Suspect person being accused of a crime, before conviction or trial Offender person accused, before and after trial or conviction

  36. Response (10) Suspect someone who is under suspicion to think (a person etc) guilty Accused a person or persons charged in a court of law with a crime, offense To make a charge of wrongdoing against another Perpetrator to commit To be responsible for; commit Detainee a person held in custody A person held in custody or confinement Lawbreaker a person who breaks or violates the law someone who violates the law Delinquent A person who neglects or fails to do what law or duty requires a young offender Wrongdoer a person who does wrong, esp. a sinner or transgressor One who does wrong, especially morally or ethically Arraigned To call (an accused person) before a court to answer the charge made against him or her by indictment, information, or complaint. To call to account; accuse Culprit a person or other agent guilty of or responsible for an offense or fault One charged with an offense or crime Defendant Law. a person, company, etc., against whom a claim or charge is brought in a court The party against which an action is brought Offender One that offends, especially one that breaks a public law a person who transgresses moral or civil law Guilty Responsible for or chargeable with a reprehensible act; deserving of blame; culpable Adjudged to have committed a crime Convict a person proved or declared guilty of an offense a person serving a prison sentence Prisoner a person who is confined in prison or kept in custody, esp. as the result of legal process. anyone who has been captured and is held against his will as a criminal Felon a person who has committed a felony someone who has committed a crime or has been legally convicted of a crime Criminal a person guilty or convicted of a crime Guilty of crime Lexico Publishing Group. 2008. Dictionary.com. January 21 2008. http://dictionary.reference.com/

  37. Response (ja) ALLEGED declared or stated to be as described; asserted. declared but not proved ACCUSED to charge with the fault, offense, or crime. a person or persons charged in a court of law with a crime, offense CRIMINAL of the nature of or involving crime. guilty of crime. CULPRIT a person or other agent guilty of or responsible for an offense or fault. a person arraigned for an offense. DEFENDANT a person, company, etc., against whom a claim or charge is brought in a court . The party against which an action is brought against. DELINQUENT failing in or neglectful of a duty or obligation; guilty of a misdeed or offense. Failing to do what law or duty requires. FELON a person who has committed a felony. an evil person. INCRIMATE to accuse of or present proof of a crime or fault. to involve in an accusation; cause to be or appear to be guilty. INCULPATE to charge with fault; blame; accuse. to involve in a charge; incriminate. LAWBREAKER One who does not comply with the law. MOBSTER A member of a criminal gang or crime syndicate. a criminal who is a member of a group of other criminals. ROBBER To take property from (a person) illegally by using or threatening to use violence or force. To take valuable or desired articles unlawfully SUSPECT to believe to be guilty, false, counterfeit, undesirable, defective, bad. To have doubts about; distrust. HTTP://dictionary. reference. com