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Genetic Engineering
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  1. Genetic Engineering Chapter 13 Test on Friday 03/13/09 Reviewing Content Due 03/12/09 1-10 and #28

  2. What is Genetic Engineering? • Engineering– science of matter made useful to man • Genetics - how traits are passed on through generations. • Genetic Engineering - manipulation of an organism's genetic material to modify the proteins it produces.

  3. Types of genetic engineering: • Indirect genetic manipulation • Direct genetic manipulation

  4. Indirect Genetic Manipulation • Selective Breeding - desired characteristics (phenotypes) are allowed to produce • Hybridization – crossing dissimilar characteristics (phenotypes) to bring together the best • Inbreeding – continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics • Induced Mutations – inducing mutations - new genetic combinations - new phenotypes (variation)

  5. Direct Genetic Manipulation: • Scientists use their knowledge of DNA structure & chemical properties to change (manipulate) DNA. • DNA RNA Proteins -Phenotypes

  6. How do you Manipulate DNA: • DNA Extraction – cells are opened and DNA removed • We will do this in class

  7. Cutting DNA • DNA is cut into small pieces (WHY?) • Restriction enzymes - cuts DNA at specific nucleotide sequences • Hundreds of restriction enzymes are known

  8. Seperating DNA • How can DNA fragments be analyzed once extracted and cut,

  9. gel electrophoresis

  10. Use of DNA • Reading the Sequence – complementary base pairing of fragments of DNA • The nucleotides (A,T,C,G) is color coded • The fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis • The order of the colors - order of nucleotides

  11. Cut & Pasting • DNA sequences can be joined together using synthesizers • Recombinant DNA – combining DNA from different sources, usually in the form a plasmid • Natural DNA  Natural DNA • Natural DNA  Synthetic DNA (created)

  12. Making Copies • Polymerase Chain Reaction – makes many copies of DNA fragments for study • Copying of DNA

  13. Review: What was Griffith’s Experiment? • Griffith’s experiments • he heated the smooth (lethal) pneumonia strain • mixed it with the rough (non-lethal) strain, • there must have been DNA fragments from the lethal that were taken in • the non-lethal - lethal  

  14. Cell Transformation • When cells either bacterial, plant, or animal takes in external DNA, that becomes incorporated into the cells DNA. • This external DNA can be in the form of a plasmid.

  15. Types of Transformation: Bacterial • new gene inserted into the bacterial plasmid • Recombinant plasmid is reinserted into the bacteria

  16. Types of Transformation: Plant • New gene is inserted into the bacterial plasmid • Bacteria then infects the plant cell. • Successful when recombinant DNA is integrated into the cells chromosomes (DNA)

  17. Types of Transformations-Animal • New gene inserted in bacterial plasmid • The plasmid inserted directly into nucleus of animal cell. • New DNA is incorporated into the animal chromosomes • transcription translation recombinant protein production

  18. Diagram – Transformation Bacterial

  19. Transgenic Organisms • organisms with foreign DNA • Bacteria with foreign genes used to create medicine • Insulin, growth hormone, clotting factor

  20. Transgenic Organisms • Animals – extra genes used to create livestock that can produce more food or study human disease • Plants – extra genes create more food, resistance to disease, insects, or chemicals for weed control

  21. Applications of Genetic Engineering: • Biotechnology industry • both commercial & therapeutic • is spurred by genetic engineering techniques.

  22. Cloning • process of creating exact copies of organisms • Application unclear

  23. Therapeutic applications New organs Reproductive cloning • new individuals

  24. The End