Genetic Engineering Chapter 13 Test on Friday 03/13/09 Reviewing Content Due 03/12/09 1-10 and #28
What is Genetic Engineering? • Engineering– science of matter made useful to man • Genetics - how traits are passed on through generations. • Genetic Engineering - manipulation of an organism's genetic material to modify the proteins it produces.
Types of genetic engineering: • Indirect genetic manipulation • Direct genetic manipulation
Indirect Genetic Manipulation • Selective Breeding - desired characteristics (phenotypes) are allowed to produce • Hybridization – crossing dissimilar characteristics (phenotypes) to bring together the best • Inbreeding – continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics • Induced Mutations – inducing mutations - new genetic combinations - new phenotypes (variation)
Direct Genetic Manipulation: • Scientists use their knowledge of DNA structure & chemical properties to change (manipulate) DNA. • DNA RNA Proteins -Phenotypes
How do you Manipulate DNA: • DNA Extraction – cells are opened and DNA removed • We will do this in class
Cutting DNA • DNA is cut into small pieces (WHY?) • Restriction enzymes - cuts DNA at specific nucleotide sequences • Hundreds of restriction enzymes are known
Seperating DNA • How can DNA fragments be analyzed once extracted and cut,
Use of DNA • Reading the Sequence – complementary base pairing of fragments of DNA • The nucleotides (A,T,C,G) is color coded • The fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis • The order of the colors - order of nucleotides
Cut & Pasting • DNA sequences can be joined together using synthesizers • Recombinant DNA – combining DNA from different sources, usually in the form a plasmid • Natural DNA Natural DNA • Natural DNA Synthetic DNA (created)
Making Copies • Polymerase Chain Reaction – makes many copies of DNA fragments for study • Copying of DNA
Review: What was Griffith’s Experiment? • Griffith’s experiments • he heated the smooth (lethal) pneumonia strain • mixed it with the rough (non-lethal) strain, • there must have been DNA fragments from the lethal that were taken in • the non-lethal - lethal
Cell Transformation • When cells either bacterial, plant, or animal takes in external DNA, that becomes incorporated into the cells DNA. • This external DNA can be in the form of a plasmid.
Types of Transformation: Bacterial • new gene inserted into the bacterial plasmid • Recombinant plasmid is reinserted into the bacteria
Types of Transformation: Plant • New gene is inserted into the bacterial plasmid • Bacteria then infects the plant cell. • Successful when recombinant DNA is integrated into the cells chromosomes (DNA)
Types of Transformations-Animal • New gene inserted in bacterial plasmid • The plasmid inserted directly into nucleus of animal cell. • New DNA is incorporated into the animal chromosomes • transcription translation recombinant protein production
Transgenic Organisms • organisms with foreign DNA • Bacteria with foreign genes used to create medicine • Insulin, growth hormone, clotting factor
Transgenic Organisms • Animals – extra genes used to create livestock that can produce more food or study human disease • Plants – extra genes create more food, resistance to disease, insects, or chemicals for weed control
Applications of Genetic Engineering: • Biotechnology industry • both commercial & therapeutic • is spurred by genetic engineering techniques.
Cloning • process of creating exact copies of organisms • Application unclear
Therapeutic applications New organs Reproductive cloning • new individuals