THE PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION UNITY AND VARIETY BALANCE WEIGHT AND GRAVITY EMPHASIS SPACE
THE VISUAL ELEMENTS OF DESIGN Line, Shape, Texture, Value, and Color IN COMBINATION OF MULTIPLE PARTS TO CREATE A HARMONIOUS WHOLE THE PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION UNITY AND VARIETY WEIGHT AND GRAVITY BALANCE EMPHASIS SPACE
UNITY AND VARIETY UNITY Unity can be defined as similarity, oneness, togetherness or cohesion VARIETY Variety can be defined as difference. You create variety when elements are changed. Learning to find the right balance between unity and variety is the key to a visually successful work. COMPOSITION IS AN ART AND NOT A SCIENCE
Unity/Variety Andy Warhol 16 Jackies 1964 slikscreen Hannah Hoch Cut with a Kitchen Knife, 1919 Collage, 44 x 35”
Unity/Variety Devorah Sperbe After The Last Supper 2005 85″h x 29′w. 20,763 spools of thread Unity and variety are the cornerstones of composition, combined effectively the composition is both cohesive and active.
GESTALT PRINCIPLES of DESIGN The visual perception that emphasizes the importance of the whole composition through the combination and use of : grouping, containment, repetition, proximity, continuity and closure to create visualunity
GESTALT Gestalt Psychology emphasizes the importance of unity, connection and completion. THEORY: VISUAL INFORMATION IS UNDERSTOOD AS A WHOLE BEFORE IT IS EXAMINED SEPARATELY. Eaxmlpe: Msot peolpe can raed any snetnace as lnog as the frsit and lsat lteters of ecah wrod are crroect.
Therefore, you can create deliberate relationships among different visual elements USING: Containment Grouping Repetition Proximity Continuity Closure
CONTAINMENTTO FRAME OR CREATE A BOUNDARY Frances Bacon Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion 1, 2, 3
CONTAINMENT Alberto Giacometti Jean Genet oil 1954-55
CONTAINMENT Robert Mapplethorpe Thomas in a Circle 1987 photograph
GROUPING B C A Gestalt Theory: Our minds group objects by similar shapes and colors
GROUPING Gustav Klimt, Death and Life, 1915, oil on canvas, 5’10”x6’6”
REPETITION Repetition occurs when we use the same visual element or effect over and over Rene Margritte Golconde, 1953
PROXIMITY In design the distance between visual elements is called proximity A B
PROXIMITY can create FUSION FUSION = POSITIVE / NEGATIVE SPACE FUSION WITH GRADATION OR TRANSPARENCY CAN DISSOLVE THE LINE BETWEENPOSITIVE / NEGATIVE SPACE
PROXIMITY Michelangelo Creation of Adam 1510
CONTINUITY The fluid connection among compositional parts. Skillful use of continuity can add visual movement to a design.
CLOSURE:THE HUMAN MIND WILL AUTOMATICALLY CONNECT VISUAL FRAGMENTS Closure makes it possible to communicate using implication
CLOSURE Chuck Close, Self-Portrait , 2004-2005 oil on canvas 102 x 86” David Hockney David Graves , 1982 Photos
COMBINING GESTALT PRINCIPLES MANY ARTISTS AND DESIGNERS COMBINE SOME OR ALL THE PRINCIPLES OF GESTALT IN A SINGLE COMPOSITION Michael Anderson Portrait of David Lynch, Poster 60'' x 60'', 2002
PATTERNS AND GRIDS • Pattern is created when any visual element is systematically repeated over an extended area. • Grid is created through a series of intersecting lines.
PATTERN AND GRIDS Faith Ringgold Who’s Bad 1988, Acrylic on canvas, fabric border, 74 x 69”
PATTERNS AND GRIDS Felix Gonzalez-Torres, Untitled (Death by Gun), 1990, Offset print on paper, 44 x 32 inches
The orientation of objects within an image can influence the visual weight of the piece. WEIGHT AND GRAVITY Bernice Abbot, Exchange Place, New York, 1934, Photograph
BALANCE Refers to the equal distribution of weight or force among visual units
BALANCE SYMMETRICAL BALANCE The more common method is to place objects of equal mass or weight on each side of the balancing fulcrum-point CALLED FORMAL BALANCE Symmetrical Asymmetrical fulcrum fulcrum ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE Looks for unique relationships that appear at first glance as though it ought not to work, yet it through variety creates interest. CALLED INFORMAL BALANCE
SYMMETRICAL BALANCESymmetrical balance, shapes or volumes are mirrored on either side of their vertical or horizontal axis This is also referred to as formal balance
APPROXIMATE SYMMETRY Approximate Symmetry is created when similar imagery appears on either side of a central axis Richard Estes Downtown - Reflections, 1991 Color woodcut 16 1/4 x 10 "
ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE creates equilibrium between visual elements that are different in size, number, weight, color or texture This is also referred to as informal balance
RADIAL SYMMETRY This is a simple diagram and example of radial balance.
What type of balance is this? Linoleum Print
What type of balance is this? Jim Dine Double Rober with Zipper, Print, 37 x 27 in
What type of balance is this? Richard Estes, Paris Street Scene, 1972, oil on canvas, 40 x 60 in
What type of balance is this? Judy Chicago, Through the Flower, 1972 Drawing
Judy Chicago Rejection Quintet: Female Rejection Drawing, 1974 29” x 39” Frida Kahlo Las Dos Fridas, 1939
IMBALANCE ERIC FISCHL BARBEQUE, 1982, oil on canvas, 5’5” x 88’4”
SCALE AND PROPORTION Scale and Proportion strongly affect compositional balance and emotional impact Proportion refers to the relative size of visual elements within an image DI VINCI Vitruvian Man
RENE MAGREITTE Les Valeurs Personnelles (Personal Values) 1952