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Principles of Two Dimensional Design. THE PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION. UNITY AND VARIETY BALANCE WEIGHT AND GRAVITY EMPHASIS SPACE. THE VISUAL ELEMENTS OF DESIGN. Line, Shape, Texture, Value, and Color. IN COMBINATION OF MULTIPLE PARTS TO CREATE A HARMONIOUS WHOLE.

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the principles of composition
THE PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION

UNITY AND VARIETY

BALANCE

WEIGHT AND GRAVITY

EMPHASIS

SPACE

the visual elements of design
THE VISUAL ELEMENTS OF DESIGN

Line, Shape, Texture, Value, and Color

IN COMBINATION OF MULTIPLE PARTS TO CREATE A HARMONIOUS WHOLE

THE PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION

UNITY AND VARIETY

WEIGHT AND GRAVITY

BALANCE

EMPHASIS

SPACE

unity and variety
UNITY AND VARIETY

UNITY

Unity can be defined as similarity, oneness, togetherness or cohesion

VARIETY

Variety can be defined as difference. You create variety when elements are changed.

Learning to find the right balance between unity and variety is the key to a visually successful work.

COMPOSITION IS AN ART AND NOT A SCIENCE

unity variety
Unity/Variety

Andy Warhol

16 Jackies

1964 slikscreen

Hannah Hoch

Cut with a Kitchen Knife, 1919

Collage, 44 x 35”

unity variety1
Unity/Variety

Devorah Sperbe

After The Last Supper

2005 85″h x 29′w.

20,763 spools of thread

Unity and variety are the cornerstones of composition, combined effectively the composition is both cohesive and active.

gestalt principles of design
GESTALT PRINCIPLES of DESIGN

The visual perception

that emphasizes the importance of

the whole composition through the

combination and use of :

grouping,

containment, repetition,

proximity,

continuity and closure

to create visualunity

gestalt
GESTALT

Gestalt Psychology emphasizes the importance of unity, connection and completion.

THEORY:

VISUAL INFORMATION IS UNDERSTOOD AS A WHOLE BEFORE IT IS EXAMINED SEPARATELY.

Eaxmlpe:

Msot peolpe can raed any snetnace as lnog as the frsit and lsat lteters of ecah wrod are crroect.

therefore you can create deliberate relationships among different visual elements
Therefore, you can create deliberate relationships among different visual elements

USING:

Containment

Grouping Repetition Proximity Continuity Closure

containment to frame or create a boundary
CONTAINMENTTO FRAME OR CREATE A BOUNDARY

Frances Bacon

Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion 1, 2, 3

containment
CONTAINMENT

Alberto Giacometti

Jean Genet

oil

1954-55

containment1
CONTAINMENT

Robert Mapplethorpe Thomas in a Circle 1987 photograph

grouping
GROUPING

B

C

A

Gestalt Theory:

Our minds group objects by similar shapes and colors

grouping1
GROUPING

Gustav Klimt, Death and Life, 1915,

oil on canvas, 5’10”x6’6”

repetition
REPETITION

Repetition

occurs when

we use the

same visual

element or

effect over

and over

Rene Margritte Golconde, 1953

proximity
PROXIMITY

In design the distance between visual elements is called proximity

A

B

proximity can create fusion
PROXIMITY can create FUSION

FUSION = POSITIVE / NEGATIVE SPACE

FUSION WITH GRADATION OR TRANSPARENCY CAN DISSOLVE THE LINE BETWEENPOSITIVE / NEGATIVE SPACE

proximity1
PROXIMITY

Michelangelo Creation of Adam 1510

continuity
CONTINUITY

The fluid connection among compositional parts.

Skillful use of continuity can add visual movement to a design.

closure the human mind will automatically connect visual fragments
CLOSURE:THE HUMAN MIND WILL AUTOMATICALLY CONNECT VISUAL FRAGMENTS

Closure makes it possible to communicate using implication

closure
CLOSURE

Chuck Close, Self-Portrait , 2004-2005

oil on canvas 102 x 86”

David Hockney David Graves , 1982

Photos

combining gestalt principles
COMBINING GESTALT PRINCIPLES

MANY ARTISTS AND DESIGNERS COMBINE SOME OR ALL THE PRINCIPLES OF GESTALT IN A SINGLE COMPOSITION

Michael Anderson Portrait of David Lynch, Poster 60'' x 60'', 2002

patterns and grids
PATTERNS AND GRIDS
  • Pattern is created when any visual element is systematically repeated over an extended area.
  • Grid is created through a series of intersecting lines.
pattern and grids
PATTERN AND GRIDS

Faith Ringgold Who’s Bad 1988, Acrylic on canvas, fabric border, 74 x 69”

patterns and grids1
PATTERNS AND GRIDS

Felix Gonzalez-Torres, Untitled (Death by Gun), 1990, Offset print on paper, 44 x 32 inches

weight and gravity

The orientation of objects within an image can influence the visual weight of the piece.

WEIGHT AND GRAVITY

Bernice Abbot, Exchange Place,

New York, 1934, Photograph

balance
BALANCE

Refers to the equal distribution of weight or force among visual units

balance1
BALANCE

SYMMETRICAL BALANCE

The more common method is to

place objects of equal mass or

weight on each side of the

balancing fulcrum-point

CALLED FORMAL BALANCE

Symmetrical

Asymmetrical

fulcrum

fulcrum

ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE

Looks for unique relationships that appear at first glance as though it ought not to work, yet it through variety creates interest.

CALLED INFORMAL BALANCE

slide30
SYMMETRICAL BALANCESymmetrical balance, shapes or volumes are mirrored on either side of their vertical or horizontal axis

This is also referred to as

formal balance

approximate symmetry
APPROXIMATE SYMMETRY

Approximate Symmetry is created when similar imagery appears on either side of a central axis

Richard Estes

Downtown - Reflections, 1991

Color woodcut

16 1/4 x 10 "

asymmetrical balance
ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE

creates equilibrium between visual elements that are different in

size,

number,

weight, color

or

texture

This is also referred to as informal balance

radial symmetry
RADIAL SYMMETRY

This is a simple diagram and example of radial balance.

slide35

What type of balance is this?

Jim Dine

Double Rober with Zipper, Print, 37 x 27 in

slide36

What type of balance is this?

Richard Estes,

Paris Street Scene, 1972, oil on canvas, 40 x 60 in

slide37

What type of balance is this?

Judy Chicago, Through the Flower, 1972 Drawing

slide38
Judy Chicago

Rejection Quintet: Female Rejection Drawing, 1974 29” x 39”

Frida Kahlo Las Dos Fridas, 1939

imbalance
IMBALANCE

ERIC FISCHL

BARBEQUE, 1982, oil on canvas, 5’5” x 88’4”

scale and proportion
SCALE AND PROPORTION

Scale and Proportion strongly affect compositional balance and emotional impact

Proportion refers to the relative size of visual elements within an image

DI VINCI Vitruvian Man

slide41

RENE MAGREITTE

Les Valeurs Personnelles (Personal Values) 1952