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Ecosystem Properties. Ecological Hierarchies. Biosphere Biome Ecosystem Community Population Organism Tissue Cell Molecules. Definitions. Biosphere - The entire portion of the globe that can support life, including the atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial surface and belowground

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ecological hierarchies
Ecological Hierarchies
  • Biosphere
  • Biome
  • Ecosystem
  • Community
  • Population
  • Organism
  • Tissue
  • Cell
  • Molecules
definitions
Definitions
  • Biosphere - The entire portion of the globe that can support life, including the atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial surface and belowground
  • Biome – The largest easily recognized subsection of the biosphere, based upon climate
definitions4
Definitions
  • Ecosystem – A region where plants, animals and microbes can interact with each other and their environment.
  • Community – A region where plants, animals and microbes can interact with each other.
  • Population – An interbreeding group of organisms
ecosystem emergent properties
Ecosystem Emergent Properties
  • All “systems” are made up of components. Once those components are assembled into the system, they take on new properties, those of the “system”.
  • E.g., bridge over South Canadian River
  • E.g., living system
ecosystem emergent properties6
Ecosystem Emergent Properties
  • What are the emergent properties of a living system, e.g., you?
  • You are composed of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, etc., but you are so much more than bags of elements flopping around
  • As a living entity you:
  • Respire
  • Irritable
  • Capable of reproduction
ecosystem emergent properties7
Ecosystem Emergent Properties
  • So, as a “system” ecosystems also have emergent properties
  • Nutrient cycling
  • Energy flow
energy in ecosystems
Energy in Ecosystems
  • Energy Movement follows 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics
    • Energy can’t be created or destroyed
    • Any transfers of energy are not 100% efficient
energy flow10
Energy Flow

Calories

Solar Energy

1,000,000

1 %

10,000

Producers

10%

1,000

Herbivores

10%

Consumers

100

Carnivores

10%

10

Top Carnivore

energy flow11
Energy Flow

Solar Energy

1 %

Producers

10%

Herbivores

Food Chain

10%

Consumers

Carnivores

10%

Top Carnivore

energy flow12
Energy Flow

Solar Energy

1 %

Producers

Trophic Level

10%

Herbivores

10%

Consumers

Carnivores

10%

Top Carnivore

nutrient cycling
Nutrient Cycling
  • There are two major types of nutrient cycles
    • Gaseous – Most of the nutrient is stored in the atmosphere
    • Sedimentary – Most of the nutrient is stored in the sediments or soils
so what nutrients do we need
So what nutrients do we need?
  • Macro-nutrients are needed in large quantities
  • Na,Cl, C, H, O, P, K, I, N, S, Ca, Fe, Mg
  • Micro-nutrients are also essential, but are needed in only small amounts
  • Mo, B, Cl, Mn, Cu, Zn
gaseous nutrient cycle the carbon cycle
Gaseous Nutrient CycleThe carbon cycle

Respiration

CO2

(photosynthesis)

plant

Decomposers

herbivore

carnivore

top carnivore

sedimentary nutrient cycle example the phosphorus cycle
Sedimentary Nutrient CycleExample: The Phosphorus Cycle

erosion

plant

herbivores

carnivores

P in soil

decomposers

(weathering)

P in rock (apatite)

so what nutrients do we need18
So what nutrients do we need?
  • Macro-nutrients are needed in large quantities
  • Na,Cl, C, H, O, P, K, I, N, S, Ca, Fe, Mg
  • Micro-nutrients are also essential, but are needed in only small amounts
  • Mo, B, Cl, Mn, Cu, Zn
  • The elements in blue have gaseous cycles
quick quiz on ecosystems
Quick Quiz on Ecosystems
  • What’s the definition of an ecosystem?
  • An area where plants, animals and microbes interact with each other and the environment
  • So why do you need an ecosystem for
    • Energy Flow?
    • Nutrient Cycling?
  • Does energy ever cycle?
take out a clean piece of paper
Take out a clean piece of paper
  • A practice quiz
  • List two types of symbiotic relationships
quiz continued
Quiz, continued
  • Competition between organisms of different species is known as:
    • Intraspecific interactions
    • Intraspecific competition
    • Interspecific interactions
    • Interspecific competition
quiz continued24
Quiz, continued
  • If you went up a tall mountain, how many meters increase in elevation would you have to go up to see the same change in vegetation structure that you would see if you went north 30 degrees latitude?
    • 1800 m
    • 4000 m
    • 400 m
    • 100 m
quiz continued25
Quiz, continued
  • Which biome has the greatest number of species?
  • Which biome produces most of the wood pulp used for paper in the U.S.?
quiz continued26
Quiz, continued
  • In which grassland ecosystem would you expect to find the greatest number of species and why?
    • Undisturbed tall grass prairie
    • Wheat field
    • Corn field
    • Heavily grazed tall grass prairie