Oak Ridge SchoolsTeacher-Leader Conference Wil Parker firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
How you doin’? Tribes, Jeanne Gibbs
If you were going to explain DI… • What are the most important big ideas? • What are the benefits? • What are some of the details? To present your conclusions, you may: • Write a letter to parents and/or teachers • Make a flow chart or complete bulleted list • Draw pictures to express your beliefs • Make a mind map of ideas Consider the next 2 slides as you form your answers.
Differentiated Instruction Defined “Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through the curriculum lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students’ varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to ‘get at’ and express learning.” Carol Ann Tomlinson
Differentiation Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs Shaped by mindset & guided by general principles of differentiation Respectful tasks Quality Curriculum Flexible grouping Continual assessment Bldg. Community Teachers can differentiate through Content Product Affect/Environment Process According to students’ Readiness Interest Learning Profile Through a variety of instructional strategies such as: RAFTS…Graphic Organizers…Scaffolding Reading…Cubing…Think-Tac-Toe…Learning Contracts…Tiering… Learning/Interest Centers… Independent Studies….Intelligence Preferences…Orbitals…Complex Instruction…4MAT…Web Quests & Web Inquiry…ETC.
Designing a Unit or LessonThink of a unit on which you will work.Work on the unit as a whole, or a specific lesson within the unit.
Designing a Unit or LessonThink of a unit on which you will work.Work on the unit as a whole, or a specific lesson within the unit. Step 1: Develop KUDs • What standards are being addressed? • Unpack the standards: As a result of learning, what should students now • Know • Understand • Be able to Do
Down and Dirty with KUDs Know – Facts, vocabulary, steps to a procedure, formulas, dates, names. Things I can look up. Understand – Big ideas written as complete sentences. Understandings should be written so that they can be preceded by “Students will understand THAT…” Make sure these are conceptual issues that grow over time!! Do – The skills and abilities of the unit. These are NOT lesson plans, but what students should now be able to do as a result of the learning in the unit!
Designing a Unit or Lesson Step 2: Think about Assessment • How will you know the students Know, Understand and are able to Do at the end of the unit? • What is acceptable evidence? • Can or should it be differentiated? • On what basis should it be differentiated? • Readiness? • Interest? • Learning Profile?
Down and Dirty with Summative Assessment or Product A means to determine a student’s mastery and understanding of information, skills, concepts, or processes. • Should reflect formative assessments that precede it, but those are designed after the summative is designed • should match material taught • may determine student’s exit achievement • may be tied to a final decision, grade or report • should align with instructional/curricular outcomes • may be a form of alternative assessment
Map Diagram Sculpture Discussion Demonstration Poem Profile Chart Play Dance Campaign Cassette Quiz Show Banner Brochure Debate Flow Chart Puppet Show Tour Lecture Editorial Painting Costume Placement Blueprint Catalogue Dialogue Newspaper Scrapbook Lecture Questionnaire Flag Scrapbook Graph Debate Museum Learning Center Advertisement Possible Products Book List Calendar Coloring Book Game Research Project TV Show Song Dictionary Film Collection Trial Machine Book Mural Award Recipe Test Puzzle Model Timeline Toy Article Diary Poster Magazine Computer Program Photographs Terrarium Petition Drive Teaching Lesson Prototype Speech Club Cartoon Biography Review Invention
A good product is not just something students do for enjoyment at the end of the day. It must cause students to think about, apply, and even expand on all the key understandings and skills of the learning span it represents.
Designing a Unit or Lesson Step 3 or 4: Design a specific lesson – repeat as desired for more lessons! • Choose one lesson from within the unit. What will you address in this lesson from the KUD list? • How will you design the learning experience? • Should there be whole class, direct instruction? • What strategies will be effective for the content? • What activities will engage students and give ownership for the content? • How should it be differentiated?
Designing a Unit or Lesson Step 3 or 4: Design Pre-assessment or Formative assessments • What needs to be addressed from the KUD on the assessment? • What format should the assessment take? • How will students be able to best show what they know? • How should it be differentiated?
Down and Dirty with Lesson Design Make sure what you are designing DIRECTLY ADDRESSES an area on you KUD list!! • Readiness? Consider Tiered activity, Scaffolding or Compacting. • Learning profile? Consider Multiple Intelligences, Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory (Analytical, Practical, Creative) or Modality. • Interest? Consider creating options of EQUAL rigor and requirments. • Strategies? Remember RAFT, Contracts, Think Dots or Cubing… and everything else you already do with new DI eyes.
Designing a Unit or Lesson Step 4 or 3: Design Pre-assessment or Formative assessments • What needs to be addressed from the KUD on the assessment? • What format should the assessment take? • How will students be able to best show what they know? • How should it be differentiated? • Will it be graded? If so, on what criteria?
Down and Dirty with Pre-Assessments Any method, strategy or process used to determine a student’s current level of readiness or interest in order to plan for appropriate instruction. • provides data to determine options for students • helps determine differences before planning • helps teacher design activities that are respectful and challenging • allows teachers to meet students where they are • identifies starting point for instruction • identifies learning gaps • makes efficient use of instructional time
Common Types of Readiness or Pre- Assessments • Individual K-W-L Check • Pre-test • Skills Check • Misconception check • Writing samples or journal with prompt • Mind mapping (graphic organizer) • Checklist through observation, cruising • Student products and work samples • Interviews or oral defense • Draw what you know • Anticipation/reaction guide • Informal Q and A • Frayer Model (consider 1-page portfolio format for unit)
Down and Dirty with Formative Assessments • A process of accumulating information about a student’s progress to help make instructional decisions that will improve his/her understandings and achievement levels. • Depicts student’s life as a learner • used to make instructional adjustments • alerts the teacher about student misconceptions • “early warning signal” • allows students to build on previous experiences • provides regular feedback • provides evidence of progress • aligns with instructional/curricular outcomes
STUDENT DATA SOURCES Journal entry Short answer test Open response test Home learning Notebook Oral response Portfolio entry Exhibition Culminating product Question writing Problem solving TEACHER DATA MECHANISMS Anecdotal records Observation by checklist Skills checklist Class discussion Small group interaction Teacher – student conference Assessment stations Exit cards Problem posing Performance tasks and rubrics THINKING ABOUT ON-GOING ASSESSMENT
Assessment is for: Gatekeeping Judging Right Answers Control Comparison to others Use with single activities Assessment is for: Nurturing Guiding Self-Reflection Information Comparison to task Use over multiple activities Two Views of Assessment -- 22
Assessment in a Differentiated Classroom • Assessment drives instruction. (Assessment information helps the teacher map next steps for varied learners and the class as a whole.) • Assessment occurs consistently as the unit begins, throughout the unit and as the unit ends. (Pre-assessment, formative and summative assessment are regular parts of the teaching/learning cycle.) • Teachers assess student readiness, interest and learning profile. • Assessments are part of “teaching for success.” • Assessment information helps students chart and contribute to their own growth. • Assessment MAY be differentiated. • Assessment information is more useful to the teacher than grades. • Assessment is more focused on personal growth than on peer competition. 25
Pre and Formative Assessment (Assessment FOR Learning) Assessment occurring before and during the process of a unit or a course. During the formation of a concept or item. Answers question: How are students doing? What are they learning? What misconceptions do they have? Quiz, teacher observations, mid-unit test, one-minute essay Gives feedback to either the teacher or student (or both) on what revisions to make to teaching or to student work. Summative Assessment (Assessment OF Learning) The assessment done at the end of a unit, course, grade level. Provides a final summation of learning. End of chapter, final exam, final draft of writing portfolio, senior exhibition. The adding-up or summary stage. Summarizes the learning for both the teacher and the student. Use Pre- Formative and Summative Assessments
Formative assessment critical • We do too much “testing” and not enough “feedback giving” • The research is clear: lots of formative assessment and opportunities to use it is key to the greatest gains in learning, as measured on conventional tests • See Black and Wiliam, “Inside the Black Box” in the Kappan; and How People Learn, Bransford et al.
ONGOING ASSESSMENT Some teachers talk about--- LEARNING Some teachers talk about--- GRADES VS. • Can these two coexist peacefully? • Should one receive emphasis over the other? 28
Why Do You Assess? With your group, take 5 to discuss the reasons you assess students. 29
“Assessment is today’s means of understanding how to modify tomorrow’s instruction.” Carol Tomlinson 30
How Do You Assess? Take a moment to list some ways you typically assess students in your classroom. 31
“Assessment should always have more to do with helping students grow than with cataloging their mistakes.” Carol Tomlinson 32
When Do You Assess? Most teachers assess students at the end of an instructional unit or sequence. When assessment and instruction are interwoven, both the students and the teacher benefit. The next slide suggests a diagnostic continuum for ongoing assessment. 33
Formative Assessment (Keeping Track & Checking -up) Summative Assessment (Making sure) Pre-assessment (Finding Out) On-going Assessment:A Diagnostic Continuum Feedback and Goal Setting Pre-test Graphing for Greatness Inventory KWL Checklist Observation Self-evaluation Questioning Conference Exit Card Peer evaluation Portfolio Check 3-minute pause Quiz Observation Journal Entry Talkaround Self-evaluation Questioning Unit Test Performance Task Product/Exhibit Demonstration Portfolio Review 34
Pre-assessment Is... • Any method, strategy or process used to determine a • student’s current level of readiness or interest in order to • plan for appropriate instruction. • provides data to determine options for students • helps determine differences before planning • helps teacher design activities that are respectful and challenging • allows teachers to meet students where they are • identifies starting point for instruction • identifies learning gaps • makes efficient use of instructional time 35
Pre-Assessment • What the student already knows about what is being planned • What standards, objectives, concepts & skills the individual student understands • What further instruction and opportunities for mastery are needed • What requires re-teaching or enhancement • What areas of interests and feelings are in the different areas of the study • How to set up flexible groups: Whole, individual, partner, or small group 36
Common Types of Readiness or Pre- Assessments • Individual K-W-L Check • Pre-test • Skills Check • Misconception check • Writing samples or journal with prompt • Mind mapping (graphic organizer) • Checklist through observation, cruising • Student products and work samples • Interviews or oral defense • Draw what you know • Anticipation/reaction guide • Informal Q and A
Telling Time • Make a list of the 1st grade children and what you think the data tells you about their knowledge of telling time and clocks. • Think about the children whose clocks you reviewed. Who needs what? • How will you plan for their instruction?