New College English （Second Edition) Integrated Course 2 Unit 2 Friendship College of Foreign Languages 外 国 语 学 院
Time Allotment Key Points Objectives Assignment Teaching methods Unit 2 Friendship All the Cabbie had Was a Letter Text A
Objectives Students will be able to: • 1. Grasp the main idea (never delay expressing your true feelings to a friend) and structure of the text (developing a story around a letter) • 2. Appreciate characteristic features of spoken English as demonstrated in Text A (spoken English is much more informal than written English) • 3. Master the key language points, grammatical structures in the text and learn how to use them in context; • 4. Understand the cultural background related to the content;5. Express themselves more freely on the theme of Friendship after doing a series of theme-related reading, listening, speaking and writing activities
Time Allotment 1st period—2nd period: Pre-reading; While-reading 3rd period—4th period: While-reading 5th period—6th period: While-reading; Post-reading 7th period—8th period: Post-reading; Theme-related language learning tasks 9th period—10th period: Listening and speaking
Key Points • Words：absolutely available awful choke correspondence • destination estimate mostly neighborhood postpone • practically reference reunion skip tough urge • Expressions:a couple of all the way be lost in/lose oneself in choke • up come up every now and then go ahead go by • hang out keep in touch with keep up kind of / sort of • know / learn by heart lose touch might / may (just )as well • not much of a on one’s mind or something • Structure:must (may) + present perfect tense be lost in sth. • might / may (just )as well+do ， subjective mood • : should have written Writing:a personal letter
Teaching methods and aids Task-based approach, whole language methods and computer assisted instruction
Assignments 1. Language focus（P39-45） 2. Home reading: Text B (P46-48) New College English Watch, Listen and Read 1: Reading3. Home listening: College English listening 3 : Unit 5- 84. Writing: a personal letter
Unit 2 Friendship All the Cabbie had Was a Letter Teaching Procedure Pre-class Activities Pre-reading Activities While-reading Activities Post-reading Activities
Pre-class activities Cultural Notes & Background Information Warm-up Questions Unit 2 Friendship
Warm-up Questions (1)What do you think of friendship? (2) Can friendship last a life time for you? In what way can people turn to so that they can keep their lifetime friendship?
Cultural Notes Halloween Halloween
Halloween • Halloween is celebrated annually. It is on the night of 31 October, when people once believed that ghosts could be seen. Now, in Britain and America, it is a time when children have parties, dress up as witches, make lanterns out of pumpkins from which the inside has been removed, and play “trick or treat”.
Halloween • Trick or treat is a traditional activity at Halloween. Children dress in costumes and visit houses. At each house they say “Trick or treat”. This means that they will play a “trick”, or joke, on the people in the house unless they are given a “treat”, e.g. sweets or money. Most people prefer to give treats rather than having tricks played on them.
Pre-reading Activities Answering the Questions
Unit 2 Friendship Answer the Questions 1. Do you often write letters to friends? 2. Did you ever write a letter which was not sent? Why did you keep it? • Stretch thinking: Suppose you have a good friend and you used to get together to share your • good and bad times ,but now your friend will transfer to another city which is far away from where you are living .What will happen ,? Will you contact each other as often as you used to?
T Checks on Ss about Their Autonomous Learning. Text Organization Unit 2 Friendship While-reading Activities Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Content Exploring & Writing Strategies
Skimming and Scanning Skim the whole text and answer the following questions: 1) Ss work in pairs to skim the text and find out how many questions the narrator asked the cabbie and what were the latter’s responses. 2) Scan Text A and decide which of the following statements is the theme. 1. One should keep in touch with his friends. 2. Never delay expressing your true feelings to a friend. 3. A true friend will stand by you forever. 4. Late is better than never. Never delay expressing your true feelings to a friend
Text Organization From a conversation with the cab driver the author learned how much he regretted failing to keep up correspondence with his old friend Ed Reading the letter by himself, the author learned more about the lifelong friendship between the driver and Old Ed. The driver’s experience urged the author to reach for his pen.
Content Exploring & Writing Strategies Part II Part I Part III • Para 21-35 • Para 1-20 • Para 36 Group Discussion
A Content Exploring & Writing Strategies Discuss Para 1--20 and finish the following tasks: Group discussion: 1). The following questions are what the narrator asked the cab driver. Put them in the right order. 1) Did you go to school together? 2) The letter must have made you feel good, didn’t it? 3) Is your cab available? 4) Is he someone you’ve known quite a while? 5) Is he dead? 6) I thought your friend was Ed. Why did he sign it Tom? 7) Is the letter from a child or a grandchild? 8) Did you two work at the same place?
Content Exploring & Writing Strategies (3 — 7 — 4 — 1 — 5 — 8 — 2 — 6)
Content Exploring & Writing Strategies • B. Text Analysis • Most of this text is a re-creation of the conversation between a taxi and the narrator. Therefore it provides ample examples of how English is spoken in daily life by native speakers. • a. In spoken English sentences tend to be short and simple, some sentences are incomplete, for example: • “ From a child or maybe a grandchild? • “ Went to school together?”
Content Exploring & Writing Strategies • b. In conversation people are liable to use words or phrases that are not usually used in written English , for example, sort of , kind of , you know, I think, I guess, I take it, well, go ahead, hung out, it’s no fun to so sth. , not much of a hand at doing sth., a couple of, every now and then, an awful lt.
C Content Exploring & Writing Strategies Structure:---1. 虚拟语气 虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式，一是用来表示说话人所说的话不是一个事实，而是一种假设、猜测、怀疑等(在条件从句中或让步状语从句中)；一是表示说话人的愿望、要求、命令、建议等 ( 在宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句)。 eg:If I had time, I would attend the meeting. If he had hurried ,he could have caught the train. If I were to go abroad ,I would go to America.
Content Exploring & Writing Strategies • A. 在句型 “It is important (necessary, strange, natural) that .... ” 中， that 后面的从句中的谓语动词用： should + 动词原形 • Eg 我们有必要出去散散步。 • It’s necessary that we should have a walk now. • 2 她这样做是很自然的。 • It’s natural that she should do so. • 3 重要的是我们要照顾好病人。 • It’s important that we should take good care of the patient.
Content Exploring & Writing Strategies • 在条件句中 • 1. 在条件句中虚拟语气与现在事实相反的假设 ： • 虚拟条件句 If+ 主语+动词的过去式 （动词 be 用 were) ，主语 +should,would, might,could ＋动词 原形 • 2. 虚拟语气与过去相反的假设 ： • If+ 主语 +had + 过去分词 ，主语＋ should, would, might, could ＋ have done • 3. 虚拟语气与将来相反的假设 • 1） If+ 主语+动词过去式 • 2 ） If+ 主语 +were to+ 动词原形 • 3 ） If+ 主语 +should + 动词原形 主语＋ should, would might, could ＋动词 原形 • More practice: • 如果我是你，我就会努力学习。 • If I were you, I would work harder at my lessons. • 如果我知道他的电话号码，我就给他打电话了． • If I had known his telephone number, I would have called him • 如果明天下雨的话，我们会取消比赛． • If it should \were to rain, we would call off the match.
Content Exploring & Writing Strategies • 使用虚拟条件句要注意的几点： • １． 当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时，被称为：错综时间条件句“，动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间作出相应的调整． If you had followed my advice , you would be better now. If you had studied hard before, you would be a college student now. 如果你听我的建议，你现在就会痊愈了． 如果你努力学习的话，你现在就会是大学生了． • ２．省略句 在条件句中，可省略 if ，把 were ,had, should 提到句首，变为倒装句式． If I were at school again, I would study harder. Were I at school again, I would study harder. If you had come earlier, you would have met him. Had you come earlier, you would have met him. If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go climbing. Should it rain tomorrow, we would not go climbing.
二、虚拟语气在名词从句中的运用 （1）用于宾语从句 １、 wish 后面的宾语从句中。 一般用虚拟语气，表示一种不可能实现的愿望。其谓语动词形式为： 表现在 过去时 表过去， 过去完成时 表将来 would, might, could ＋动词原形 I wish (that) I were a bird. I wish (that) I had seen the film last night. I wish (that) I would\could go. 2. 用于表示命令、建议、要求等一类词后面的宾语从句。 insist, order, command, suggest, advise, propose, require, request, demand, desire etc. We suggested that the meeting (should) be put off. They insisted that the boy (should) go with them. 注意： suggest 当表示“暗示、表明“讲时， insist 表示”坚持认为“之意时，应用陈述语气。 The smile on his face suggested that he was satisfied with our work. The man insisted that he had never stolen the money. 他脸上的表情表明他对我们的工作很满意． 那个人坚持说他没有偷钱．
在 suggestion / proposal / order / plan / advice / idea / request 等名词后的表语和同位语从句中要用 “should ＋动词原形” should 可以省略． （2）用于表语从句和同位语从句 My idea is that we (should ) think it over before accepting it. My suggestion that we (should) have a meeting has been accepted by others. We all agree to that suggestion that the meeting (should) be put off. （3）虚拟语气在 在主语从句中 .B 在 It is demanded/suggested/ordered/required…. that-clause 句型中从句用 (should )+ 动词原型 It is demanded that we should work out a plan. C. 在 It is a pity/a shame/ no wonder that….. 句型中从 句也常用 (should )+ 动词原型 It’s a pity that you (should miss a good chance）.
Content Exploring & Writing Strategies • 1. It is (high / about ) time that… 从句中的谓语动词用过去式或 should ＋动词原形， should 不能省略． • 三、虚拟语气在其他从句中 It is high time that you went / should go to school. 2. If only 引导的感叹句（要是．．．该有多好啊)表示现在的情况,应用过去式 ; 如果是过去的情况,应用过去完成时态 If only I knew the answer! If only I had seen the film yesterday! • 3. would rather + 从句 动词用过去式或过去完成时 I would rather you told me the truth. I would rather you had gone there last Sunday. • 4. as if ( as though) 看起来 常用虚拟形式，即表示与现在事实相反，用过去式；与过去事实相反用过去完成式 (had done). He treats /treated the boy as if he were his own son. He speaks/ spoke as if he had known about it • 5. even if ( even though) 即使 Even if he were here, he could not solve the problem. Even if I had been busy then, I would have helped you.
A Content Exploring & Writing Strategies Discuss Para 21--35 and finish the following tasks: Questions: How did the driver feel about Old Ed’s friendship with him? The driver felt that their friendship over the years had been very important to him, more important than he could say because he was not good at expressing his feelings.
A Content Exploring & Writing Strategies Discuss Para 36 and finish the following tasks: Questions: - What did the author decide to do when he arrived at the hotel? Why? He decided to write a letter at once because he didn't want to make the same mistake as the driver did.
B Content Exploring & Writing Strategies Writing strategy: Tips for writing a personal letter • ―a. The writer usually uses the first or whatever name he or she usually calls the recipient face to face, such as John, Mary. • b. An informal letter is often ended with “Affectionately,” “Fondly,” “Yours with love,” “With best wishes,” “Love,” “Yours,” etc. • c. Sign the name the recipient uses to address the writer. • d. if after finishing the letter, the writer wants to add something, he/she should write a postscript after the signature and put P.S. Or PS( postscript) in front of it.
Post-reading Activities Group discussion: Brainstorm Autonomous Learning
Post-reading Activities --. Group discussion: How are you getting along with your friends? How important are they to you?
Post-reading Activities Autonomous Learning A. Pre-lesson tasks (1) In what way has science changed the world we live in? Give examples?(2) Is science a good or bad thing to our human beings ? B. Read and learn Words and Phrases to Drill (Page 63) by heart, and try to use them. C. Group work: Read Text A to get a general idea about it, and try to find some problems.
Language Points . belost in/ lose oneself in: be absorbed in, be fully occupied with D R _ word _ corrupt He was lost in playing computer games so he was unaware of my entering the room. She was lost in her novel. I had lost myself in thought. • available: adj. able to be used, had, or reached • Since 1990, the amount of money available to buy books has fallen by 17%. We have already used up all the available space
Language Points • or something:used when you are not very sure about what you have just said • Similar phrase: or something like that D R _ word _ ban 1 • The air fare was a hundred and ninety-nine pounds or something. Here's some money. Get yourself a sandwich or something.
Language Points go ahead: continue, begin (sometimes followed by with +n.) D R _ word _ ban 1 The board of directors will vote today on whether to go ahead with the plan. • Henry will be late but we will go ahead with the meeting anyway.
5. know/ learn by heart: memorize, remember exactly • You have to know all the music by heart if you want to be a concert pianist. • The pupils are required to learn a classic poem by heart every day.
Language Points D R _ word _ corrupt estimate: form a judgement about (a quantity or value) I estimate that the total cost for the treatment of the disease will go from $5,000 to $8,000. Bill's personal riches were estimated at $368 million. might/ may (just) as well: 倒不如, 还是...的好; 最好...还是 Anyway, you're here; you might as well stay. • The post office is really busy — we'll have to queue for ages to get served. We might as well go home.
Language Points • not much of a : not a good D R _ word _ corrupt Some people may think that doing housework for others is not much of a career. • He is not much of a father, but he is an outstanding professor. keep up: continue without stopping They risk losing their homes because they can no longer keep up the repayments. • I was so hungry all the time that I could not keep the diet up for longer than a month.
Language Points D R _ word _ corrupt practically: almost, but not completely or exactly • He'd known the old man for practically ten years. • I know people who find it practically impossible to give up smoking. • neighborhood: one of the parts of a town where people live It seemed like an ideal neighborhood to raise my children in. • Houses in a good neighborhood are likely to be sold at a high price.
Language Points • correspondence:1) the act of writing, receiving or sending letters • (不可加s，但可加a, often followed by with + n.) D R _ word _ corrupt • His interest in writing came from a long correspondence with a close college friend. . • 2)the letters that sb. receives or sends (used as an uncountable noun) Mary really never mentions her step-mother in her correspondence. Any further correspondence should be sent to my new address.
Language Points • kind of/ sort of: a little bit, In some way or degree • (used before v. or after a link verb) D R _ word _ corrupt • She wasn‘t beautiful. But she was kind of cute (可爱的, 聪明的). • The boy's description kind of gives us an idea of what's happening. lose touch (with sb.): meet and contact sb. less and less often. I lost touch with my former classmates after graduation. • In my job one tends to lose touch with friends.
Language Points D R _ word _ corrupt a couple of: (infml) a few, more than one but not many Do you have a moment? There are a couple of things I'd like to talk to you about. • They promised the students that they would find a substitute teacher in a couple of days. • on one's mind: in one's thoughts; of concern to one • This travel plan has been on my mind all week.
Language Points keep in touch (with sb.): If you keep in touch with someone, you write, phone, or visit each other regularly. D R _ word _ corrupt • The old man kept in touch with his children while living in a nursing home. • While doing the research work in the Antarctic, the professor kept in touch with his students via email. come up: happen, occur, esp. unexpectedly; be mentioned or discussed • "Sorry, I am late—something came up at home.” The term "Project Hope" has come up a lot recently in the newspapers.
Language Points • urge: try very hard to persuade (often used in the pattern urge sb. to do sth. Or • followed by a that-clause. In the that-clause, "should" or the base form of a verb is used.) D R _ word _ ban 1 They urged the local government to approve plans for their reform programme. I urged my cousin to take a year off to study drawing. Sir Fred urged that Britain (should) join the European Monetary System.
Language Points • postpone: delay (usu. followed by n. /gerund) D R _ word _ corrupt • The couple had postponed having children to establish their careers. • While doing the research work in the Antarctic, the professor kept in touch with his students via email. come up: happen, occur, esp. unexpectedly; be mentioned or discussed • "Sorry, I am late—something came up at home.” The term "Project Hope" has come up a lot recently in the newspapers.